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Slide1: 

Sustainable Design of Geopolymers - Integration of Economic and Environmental Aspects in the Early Stages of Material Development Marcel Weil, Katja Dombrowski, Anja Buchwald

Slide2: 

Development of Geopolymers supported by System Analysis A. Buchwald Bauhaus Uni. Weimar K. Dombrowski TU Freiberg M.Weil Forschungs-zentrum Karlsruhe materials

What Are Geopolymers?: 

What Are Geopolymers? Alumosilicatic polymeric binders

Geopolymer: 

Geopolymer Setting Mixing

Geopolymer: 

Geopolymer - high strength - resistance against acids - temperature resistance - cold setting - quick setting - use of secondary raw materials - extended lifetime

Geopolymer: 

Geopolymer - high strength - resistance against acids - temperature resistance - cold setting - quick setting - use of secondary raw materials - extended lifetime

Material Development: 

Material Development

Goal: 

Goal Selection and optimisation of the most promising geopolymer compositions for specific fields of application by the use of system analytical tools

Approach: 

Approach 3rd Step: Detailed LCA, LCC, and optimisation of most promising geopolymers 1st Step: Screening of mineral raw materials 1st Step: Screening of mineral raw materials 2nd Step: Streamlined LCA, LCC, and key properties of geopolymers

Slide10: 

Situation: 58 raw materials (35)

Raw materials: 

Raw materials Secondary resources Ceramic waste materials tiles sanitary porcelain kiln lining material Ashes hard coal ash soft coal ash sewage sludge ash Slags blast furnace slag steel slag copper slag municipal waste slag Others broken down masonry brick scrap glass industry waste Primary resources Clays kaolinitic clays ilitic clay dolomitic clay Volcanic deposits trass tuff basalt

Slide12: 

Task: Screening of raw materials What should not happen: Loosing valuable candidates Strategies: 1. Select a group of promising candidates 2. Use different methods for the screening process Situation: 58 raw materials (35)

Methodes: 

Methodes Pre-selection

Approach 1st Step (screening raw materials): 

Approach 1st Step (screening raw materials)

Indicators: 

Indicators Technical -        reactivity (quantitative) -        mechanical strength (quantitative) -        resistance against acids (qualitative) -        temperature resistance (quantitative) -        setting time (quantitative) -        workability (qualitative) -        handling (qualitative)

Indicators: 

Indicators Economy -      raw material costs (quantitative) -      costs of the thermal activation of raw materials (qualitative) -      costs of grinding raw materials (qualitative) -      follow-up costs caused by slow setting (qualitative) -      follow-up costs caused by high water absorption (qualitative) Ecology/Health -      availability/consumption of mineral resources (quantitative) -      consumption of energy resources (qualitative) -      toxic load (qualitative) -      health and safety at the workplace (qualitative)

Compensatory method - Application fields: 

Compensatory method - Application fields

Screening (Compensatory method): 

Screening (Compensatory method)

Compensatory method: 

Compensatory method Specifications of the application P1 P2 ... Pn AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process)

Ranking order of the alternatives for different application fields: 

Ranking order of the alternatives for different application fields Problem: Determination of the cut-off level Compensatory method

Results (compensatory method): 

Results (compensatory method)

Non-compensatory method „dominance concept“: 

Non-compensatory method „dominance concept“ No weighting of objectives No consideration of application field

„dominance concept“: 

„dominance concept“ °A3 °A1 °A4 °A8 °A2 °A6 °A7 °A9 °A5 °A12 °A10 °A11 °A14 °A15 °A13 technology economy Ecology/Health Stage 1 (preselection)

„dominant concept“: 

„dominant concept“

Conclusions: 

Conclusions Introduction of Life Cycle Thinking in the early phase of material development is possible Preselection is important step too strong -> exclusion of valuable alternatives too weak -> additional work, costs, … Compensatory methods allows a good decision support in screening phase Dominance concept is a powerful tool for a rough screening

Slide26: 

Thank You

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