US History Chapter XII

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Unit IV: Becoming a World Power: 

Unit IV: Becoming a World Power Chapter XII: Expanding in Latin America


Background Latin America in the 1800s Class and Wealth Why are conditions in Latin America so different from those in British America? Why did Spain colonize? And where? Why did Britain colonize? And where? What results from two different policies? Caudillos and Chaos 1838: Breakup of United Provinces of Central America Honduras: Averages 2 presidents per year What is the assumption behind all stable forms of elective democracy?


Economics The Economies of Latin America The Monopoly on Farmland What is the effect of taxing the produce rather than the land? What system does this resemble that we have studied? Earlier in history? Raw Materials and Industry Why is it good for the United States to have Latin America so close by? What does geography have to do with this? Why is it good for Latin America to have the United States? For whom in Latin America is that good? Why doesn’t Latin America industrialize? Whom would that benefit?

The United States : 

The United States Early American Involvement The Civil War What makes the Latin American countries attractive to slaveholders? William Walker Overthrows Nicaraguan presidency Driven out by the British The “Banana” Republics Bananas become a luxury crop in the United States Rooted in a railroad failure Boston Fruit Company becomes the largest employer in Central America: El Pulpo What problems does this cause for Central America? For U.S. Relations?


Geography Or, We Need A Little Isthmus… Why is the isthmus of Panama significant? Law and Aspinwall’s link Why is 1848 a good year for this transportation business to start? Vanderbilt and Walker: Why a canal? …Right This Very Minute The Clayton-Bulwer Treaty Why is Britain interested in a canal? Why is the United States? What shows the value of a canal to the U.S.? Promises political neutrality for any canal

“Big Stick Diplomacy”: 

“Big Stick Diplomacy” Theodore Roosevelt “Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick.” The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty U.S. gets to build and control the canal All other nations’ ships will be granted free access What does this practically mean? Nicaragua vs. Panama Why is Nicaragua preferable? Why does the South especially like this route? Why does the U.S. pick Panama anyway? The role of chance in history

A Splendid Little Revolution: 

A Splendid Little Revolution Revolution in Panama Colombia Won’t Sell Philippe Bunau-Varilla How does he convince the U.S. to build a Panama Canal? How does he make it possible? Theodore Roosevelt Is this a war? Why doesn’t Roosevelt need permission? Why is there an outcry against Roosevelt? Why isn’t it terribly bad for him? 1925: Colombia paid $25,000,000

Death Awaits You: 

Death Awaits You Building the Panama Canal William C. Gorgas and Yellow Fever Why is the Canal Zone so deadly? How does biology impact history? How does technology impact biology? What advances make building the canal possible? The Canal Completed $365,000,000 cost $5,000 workers dead of accident and disease. What does this death toll compare to?

The Canal Assessed: 

The Canal Assessed Importance of the Canal The Land Divided, the World United Travel time cut from weeks to hours What is the impact of the canal on the world economy? Political Impact Why is Latin America concerned? Why does Latin American political instability concern the U.S.?

Team America: Hemisphere Police: 

Team America: Hemisphere Police Policing Latin America The Monroe Doctrine Returns Venezuela Crisis Gold found on the border with British Guiana Why does Britain accept U.S. arbitration? Venezuela Crisis II Venezuela fails to pay European debts Is the U.S. of any use to Latin America? The Roosevelt Corollary What does this resemble? 1905: The Dominican Republic is made to repay its debts Intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti Long-term consequences? Is there any justification for this corollary?

Dollars and Morals in Foreign Affairs: 

Dollars and Morals in Foreign Affairs The Progressive Presidents Agree What do Wilson and Taft agree on? Dollar Diplomacy Investment in Latin America American Marines occupy Nicaragua from 1912 to 1933. Why? Why would Taft encourage U.S. businesses to invest in these countries? A “Moral” Foreign Policy Hispaniola 1915: American troops occupy Haiti to forestall action by France, Great Britain and Germany. Why is this seen as so important at the time? 1916: U.S. troops occupy Dominican Republic for eight years.


Mexico The Mexican Revolution Porfirio Diaz and Woodrow Wilson Why is foreign investment good for Mexico? Why is it bad? Revolution of 1911 1913: Huerta overthrows Madero government What is Wilson’s motivation for opposing the Huerta government? What change has just occurred?

The Second Mexican War?: 

The Second Mexican War? The United States as Agitator Carranza and Villa Wilson ships arms to the rebels Excuses for War What prompts Wilson to occupy Vera Cruz? To sail for Mexico? Why don’t the rebels support the United States’ actions? Carranza’s Mexico Pancho Villa turns against Carranza and the United States Why is Pancho Villa perceived as such a hero? Why should he invade the United States?

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