Wireline Access Technology

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Wireline Access Technology: 

Wireline Access Technology


Definition of Broadband Different understanding of broadband in different countries Global understanding is “Transmission capacity and speed to allow interactive high-quality full-motion video, data and voice applications simultaneously via one pipe”. Communications technology that can provide support for always-on and fast-access Applications - Advanced computer applications, Video-on-Demand (VOD), Video Conferencing (VC), Computer Aided Design (CAD), e-Government, e-learning, telemedicine, etc.


Introduction - Features Technologies Fixed/cable – ADSL, FTTH, HFC and PLC Satellite-VSAT and DTH Wireless - LMDS, MMDS, etc. Note: ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line FTTH – Fibre To The Home HFC – Hybrid Fibre Coaxial PLC – Power Line Communications VSAT – Very Small Aperture Terminal DTH – Direct to the Home LMDS - Local Multipoint Distribution System MMDS - Multipoint Multi-channel Distribution System Features of Broadband


Main types of broadband Normal broadband Typical downstream bit rate 0.5 - 2 (10) Mbps. Dominating type today. Mainly used for Internet access (browsing, E-mail, file transfer etc.). IP telephony is also supported. Full broadband Typical downstream bit rate 30 - 50 Mbps. Integrates all services, telephone, Internet access and multiple TV channels (triple play).


Introduction – Current Scenario PC per 100 population, 2003 Source : ITU@2004


Introduction – Current Scenario Internet Users per 100 population, 2003 Source : ITU@2004 Ratio for Internet Subscriber to Users is 1 : 3


Introduction – Current Scenario Broadband subscribers per 100 population, 2003 Source : ITU 2003 / Analysys 125,000 subscribers


Korea Hong Kong Taiwan Singapore Malaysia Penetration Rate 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 0.4 0.8 1.8 3.5 4.8 5.9 6.8 Projected Broadband Household Penetration Rate In Selected Asian Countries (without Government intervention) Introduction – Current Scenario Source: IDC 2003 Broadband speed defined as 128kbps


Introduction – Current Scenario Broadband country comparison based on cost per 100 kbps Price per 100 Kbps of data per month US$, April 2003 Malaysia : US$7.61 Source: ITU Research Malaysia : US$5.21 From 1 Nov 2003 Prior to 1 Nov 2003


Source: DSL Forum



“Evolution of Digital Access”: 

Voiceband Modem ISDN ADSL FTTH FTTx, VDSL2, ADSL2plus Enhanced Copper Hybrid Fibre/Copper Pure Fibre “Evolution of Digital Access”

Development of digital access in PSTN: 

Development of digital access in PSTN Through analog voice: Connecting a voice-band modem (as V.90) No switch or network infra changes Through ISDN switch: Yields Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Fixed throughput 2B+D = 2*64 kb/s+16 kb/s Example: phones with build-in V.90 modems no modifications in exchange side ISDN exchange The ISDN S interfaces can be used for extending ISDN services to locations that do not have ISDN access facilities. Each S interface port operates in full duplex mode over 4-wire twisted pairs at a range of up to 1,000 meters (support for nxBRI , T1 1.544 Mb/s …)

Short history of ADSL: 

Short history of ADSL 1985 -- 1990 -- 1993 -- 1995 -- 1998 -- 1999 -- Bell Labs develop OFDM to make traditional copper wires to support new digital services - especially video-on-demand (VOD) Phone companies start deploying High-Speed DSL (HDSL) to offer T1 service (1.544 Mb/s) on copper lines without the expense of installing repeaters - first between small exchanges Phone companies begin to promote HDSL for smaller and smaller companies and ADSL for home internet access Innovative companies begin to see ADSL as a way to meet the need for faster Internet access DMT adopted by almost all vendors following ANSI T1.413 - issue 2 (in contrast to CAP) ITU-T produced ADSL standards G.992.1 (G.full: 8M/640k) and G.992.2 (G.lite: 1.5M/512k) Evaluation of three modulation technologies for ADSL: QAM, DMT and CAP. DSL Forum established on 1994

… history: 

… history 2001 -- Number of DSL subscribers 18.7 million worldwide 2002 -- ITU-T completed G.992.3 and G.992.41 standards for ADSL2 2003 -- ADSL2plus released (G.992.5). It can gain up to 20 Mbps on phone lines as long at 1.5 km. 30 million DSL users worldwide 2004 -- VDSL2 standards under preparation in DSL forum 2005 -- VDSL2 standard verified (G.933.2) – symmetrical 100 Mb/s. 115 million DSL users

Motivation / properties of ADSL: 

Motivation / properties of ADSL Need for high-speed Internet access - Telephone modem have only moderate rates (56 kb/s) and cable modems have service problems if number of users is large ADSL Transmits high speed data to local loop by using unshielded 2-wire twisted pairs (often no repeaters required) DSL allows rates varying from 160 kb/s up to 100 Mb/s on down link (DL) depending on technology used! In the most popular commercial ADSL (G.992.1) maximum rate 640 kbit/s upstream and 8 Mb/s downstream Different xDSL techniques developed to serve symmetric and asymmetric traffic requirements and different rates (STM and ATM supported by G.992.1 ADSL) STM-n: Synchronous Transfer Module (of SDH): DS-1,2: 1.544 Mb/s, 6.312 Mb/s ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode DL: Down Link - Down stream

ADSL Equipment: 

Residential Customer ADSL Modem or Gateway Customer Premises Equipment Central Office Building ADSL Rack of Line Cards Standard Telephone Lines ADSL Equipment


DMT: Discrete Multitone Technique


Bandwidth division

Reach of ADSL: 

Reach of ADSL Typically ADSL can reach as far as 18 kft from the central office To extend the reach, service providers have a host of options, outlined in the white paper DSL Anywhere v.2

Standards evolution empower Video delivery at higher speeds : 

Standards evolution empower Video delivery at higher speeds ADSL2plus (G.992.5) downstream bandwidth boost up to 24.5 Mb/s Reach Extended ADSL: RE-ADSL2 (G.992.3 annex L) loop reach increase of 600 to 900 m at low rates (192 kb/s DS + 96 kb/s US) Next Generation ADSL: ADSL2 (G.992.3) performance improvement (+100 kb/s on average) improved interop, loop diagnostics, robustness improved initialization & fast start-up power management ADSL Double upstream (G.992.3/5 annex M) double upstream bandwidth Very high speed DSL bandwidths up to 100 Mb/s on short loops different band plans Plan 997: compromise band plan for symmetric and asymmetric traffic Plan 998: optimized for asymmetry Plan Fx: flexible band plan VDSL2 Most service providers are updating with a triple pack: ADSL2, ADSL2plus and RE-ADSL at the same time

Existing High Speed Technologies Do Not Solve the Problem of Bottlenecks: 

Existing High Speed Technologies Do Not Solve the Problem of Bottlenecks Data rate [Mbit/s] 2 8 100 VDSL 20 60 Line Length 1 km 2 km 3 km 4 km 5 km ADSL2+ SHDSL Low bit-rates are insufficient for Triple-Play applications Real bit-rates are too low for multiple (3) HDTV channels Design only for short loop applications (MDU/MTU) VDSL2 = VDSL Speeds with ADSL/2+ Reach and Flexibility

VDSL2 Standardization: 

VDSL2 Standardization VDSL2 standardization started in January 2004 Main technology development in ITU-T North American system requirements in ANSI/NIPNAI European system requirements in ETSI Reached consent in May 2005 (Geneva Meeting)

Today there are various DSL Technology Options: 

Today there are various DSL Technology Options

“Today’s Typical Network” : ADSL: 

ADSL 1.5 to 8Mbit/s 9.6 to 640kbit/s Broadband Network Internet Video Servers Live Broadcast Telephone Network “Today’s Typical Network” : ADSL


ADSL Applications Internet Access & File Sharing Video Broadcast TV Video On Demand Voice over IP via DSL Teleworking Online Education & Shopping Telemedicine Online Gaming

Relation between Transmission Rate & Service Level : 

Relation between Transmission Rate & Service Level

Market Status of ADSL Technology: 

Market Status of ADSL Technology ADSL is the #1 Broadband Choice in the World with over 60% marketshare ADSL is now available in every region of the world ADSL is capable of providing up to 50 Mbp, and supports voice, video and data. The new DSL network is IP-centric There is broad equipment interoperability and there are currently established test specifications for ADSL, ADSL2plus, SHDSL, and VDSL Finally, ADSL and home networking are a natural fit as DSL effectively supports multiple applications for multiple uses via each DSL connection.

Home Network Applications: 

Home Network Applications


Summary ADSL2+ and VDSL2 offer triple play at last Reach allows wider serving areas Rates allow triple play and enhanced services Ethernet rapidly taking over from ATM Offers LAN extension type services – no signal conversion Network architecture evolving faster than ever before – DSL Forum driven

Fiber to the Home (FTTH): 

Fiber to the Home (FTTH)

Fibre to the home: 

Fibre to the home Almost unlimited transmission rates: 100 Mbit/s full duplex per subscriber easily available. Prices of both fibre and terminal equipment have until recently been too high for single users, but optical fibre systems are now competitive with respect to equipment cost for a single private user. Fibre to the home (FTTH) will soon be the main alternative in new installations (e.g., building new residential areas). FTTH deployment in existing suburban areas is now becoming competitive. The full transition from copper to fibre may take decades - will probably follow the normal cycle for renewing underground infrastructure (water, sewage, electricity, telecom).

What is FTTH? : 

What is FTTH? Copper Fiber 24 kbps - 1.5 Mbps Old networks, optimized for voice // Note: network may be aerial or underground

What is FTTH?: 

What is FTTH? “An OAN in which the ONU is on or within the customer’s premise. Although the first installed capacity of a FTTH network varies, the upgrade capacity of a FTTH network exceeds all other transmission media.” OAN: Optical Access Network ONU: Optical Network Unit OLT: Optical Line Termination CO/HE // ONU OLT Source: www.ftthcouncil.org OAN

What is FTTH?: 

What is FTTH? CO/HE Optical fiber and lasers Architecture (Electronics) - PON? - Active node? - Hybrid? Transport - ATM? - Ethernet? Philosophy - Retail - Wholesale Technical considerations //

Why FTTH?: 

Why FTTH? Enormous information carrying capacity Easily upgradeable Ease of installation Allows fully symmetric services Reduced operations and maintenance costs Benefits of optical fiber: Very long distances Strong, flexible, and reliable Allows small diameter and light weight cables Secure Immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI)

Why FTTH? - more capacity*: 

Why FTTH? - more capacity* * Typical system capability for 100 m link Source: Corning Incorporated

Why FTTH? - longer distances*: 

Why FTTH? - longer distances* * Typical distance for 1 Gbps system capability Source: Corning Incorporated

Why FTTH? - fiber versus copper: 

Why FTTH? - fiber versus copper A single copper pair is capable of carrying 6 phone calls A single fiber pair is capable of carrying over 2.5 million simultaneous phone calls (64 channels at 2.5 Gb/s) A fiber optic cable with the same information-carrying capacity (bandwidth) as a comparable copper cable is less than 1% of both the size and weight Source: Corning Incorporated

Why FTTH? - fiber versus copper: 

Why FTTH? - fiber versus copper Glass Uses light Transparent Dielectric material-nonconductive EMI immune Low thermal expansion Brittle, rigid material Chemically stable Copper Uses electricity Opaque Electrically conductive material Susceptible to EMI High thermal expansion Ductile material Subject to corrosion and galvanic reactions Fortunately, its recyclable //


Technology Minutes Hours Days Modem 56 kb/s 2 ISDN 128 kb/s 20 12 DSL 1 Mb/s 2.5 Cable 2.5 Mb/s 1 45 FTTH 0.4 Estimated minimum time to acquire Braveheart August 17, 2001: MGM, Paramount Pictures, Sony Pictures, Warner Brothers, and Universal Studios unveiled plans for a joint venture that would allow computer users to download rental copies of feature films over the Internet. December 9, 2002: “Hollywood's Latest Flop” Fortune Magazine “The files are huge. At 952 Megabytes, Braveheart took just less than five hours to download using our DSL Line at home… in the same time we could have made 20 round trips to our neighborhood Blockbuster ” Technical considerations – Speed (IPTV Reference)

FTTP Architectures: 

FTTP Architectures ONT Source:Verizon,2004.


Video Video is a popular service, which is a good basis for any new entrant FTTH provider. There is one way to provide video on cable and satellite (broadcast) and one way to provide video on DSL (IPTV). There are two ways to provide video on FTTH (broadcast and IPTV). The market place can sort out the use of each, to the benefit of the subscriber. We will describe the differences.


Can send video several different ways on FTTH Broadcast (cable TV standards) Analog Digital Cable TV good engineering practice is 47-48 dB C/N FTTH can achieve 48-51 dB C/N Benefit from high volume and plethora of applications of cable boxes RF return support for STTs IPTV – TV transmitted over Internet Protocol Feasible, and some people are doing it in place of broadcast Bandwidth hog, but statistics can work for you Interesting hybrid model awaits hybrid STTs, but can give the best of both worlds Technical considerations - Video


Ways of transmitting video


Cable and DSL users in Japan

Power Line Communication (PLC): 

Power Line Communication (PLC)

PLC diagram: 

PLC diagram


Background Don’t power companies send data over power lines already? Yes, Power Line Carrier (PLC) is used for command and control but it is narrow-band low frequency (100 to 180 kHz) and low speed. Current BPL is wide-band and uses 2.46 to 38 MHz. It offers 1-3 mBits/sec to the end point.


Broadband over Powerline (BPL) interference paths


Conclusions Broadband for All and Access Everywhere are the two main technological challenges in telecom towards 2020. For full broadband, “the future is mainly wired.” Within time frame under study, xDSL systems are major candidates for broadband fixed access, and can provide systems for a wide range of bit rates symmetrical and asymmetrical systems. FTTH will soon be the main alternative for new installations. Access via cable TV and fixed radio are other candidates for broadband access. In 2020 there will be a mix of systems. Satellites are suitable for TV broadcasting and coverage in remote areas, but not competitive for true broadband access. The fixed broadband network will often be extended to a wireless nomadic network, and access will hence be perceived as wireless by the end user.

Conclusions, cont’d: 

Conclusions, cont’d Access Everywhere will be provided through a variety of wireless solutions, which together form the B3G network: Personal Area Networks Wireless LANs Backbone cellular network Fixed radio access Satellite links B3G will become available sometime after 2010, and represents convergence between the above subsystems and the wired network. B3G will be based on packet switching and designed to carry high-speed, bursty TCP/IP traffic. New radio interface technologies may increase bandwidth efficiencies and available data rates by a factor 10 - 100 compared to GSM and UMTS. This will enable much more advanced and diverse telecommunications services in the future than what is offered by today’s systems.

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