3 Social Movements

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Social Movements: 

Social Movements In Atlantic Canada

Slide2: 

Goal Our aim is to discuss how various social movements have affected the Atlantic Canadian regions they occurred in.

What is a Social Movement?: 

What is a Social Movement? A social movement is basically a type of group action. Usually a large informal group of individuals and/or organizations. They focus on specific political or social issues. In other words they focus on carrying out, resisting or undoing social change.

The New light Movement: 

The New light Movement The New Light Movement was a renewal of New England Puritism without its essential Calvinism (13) This new sect of Christianity wished to reject politics. This new sect of Christianity wished to reject politics and to convert as much of the population to their cause as possible

The New Light Movement: 

The New Light Movement The New Light Movement coincided with the American Revolutionary War and the Loyalist Flight of the 1700s. Among these loyalists was Henry Alline who was a characteristic religious leader in Nova Scotia (6) He traveled from town to town in Atlantic Canada between 1776 and 1783 to build and sustain a religious revival in the Maritimes. He was a major influence in the establishment of the Baptist Church in the Atlantic Provinces.

What does this all mean?: 

What does this all mean? Along with Loyalist Flight to Nova Scotia was the expulsion of the French Acadians. (13) This expulsion was viewed as an opportunity to transform a Roman Catholic and pagan “wilderness” into a Christianity “garden”. After many merges among different Christian sects, it minimized the political overtones of democratic egalitarianism.

P.E.I. Land Leagues: 

P.E.I. Land Leagues Settlement of Prince Edward Island PEI farming lifestyle Division of lots and Land lord grants. Absentee Landlords Unhappy Farmers Clearing the land to make way for crops.

The Settlement of PEI: 

The Settlement of PEI In the 1760’s Prince Edward Island became a colonial property of the British crown, after it was taken from the French (known then as Ile Saint Jean). King George III of Britain divided the island into lots to sell off to landlords who could in turn, rent it out to potential settlers of PEI. The majority of the new landlords still lived in England and hired middlemen to control their land grants. The people of PEI were quite upset with this reality that they once again had to pay rent for the land on which they lived and worked. After all they came to the new world to escape this treatment. Stipulations were placed on the land grants such as the rule that after a ten-year period 1/3 of the population of each lot was settled by Protestant settlers. But the simple fact was that most of these stipulations were never upheld and the landlords never saw consequences. The Landlords lived in England, as did the government who was supposed to impose these rules. The settlers of PEI were discouraged because the absent landlords never fulfilled their contract obligations and yet the crown refused to revoke their land grants, meaning the colonists had to pay burdensome rents on the land they readied and worked. (9)

PEI Land Leagues: 

PEI Land Leagues Fighting Back Land Purchase Act 1853 Request to England for funds The Tenant League 1860’s Tenant League Riot – St. Patrick’s Day 1865 The Charlottetown Conference Joining Confederation

The Land Purchase Act and the Tenant League: 

The Land Purchase Act and the Tenant League The local government tried with no avail to get control of the land for a number of years and finally in 1853 demonstrated a new approach. They created the Land Purchase Act which would see the PEI government buy the lands from absentee landlords who did not want it any longer and in turn sell it to the tenants at low rates. However PEI quickly ran out of money and requested the crown allocate them funds, the crown refused and the act was halted. (9) Frustrations of the PEI tenants lead to the creation of the Tenant League in the 1860’s. The goal of the league was to get control of the lands. How? The members refused to pay rents with the dream that their absentee landlords would cave and sell the land holdings. This form of protest led to incidents known as the Tenant League Riots. The largest riot was during the St. Patrick’s Day parade of 1865 when local police attempted to arrest the leader of the Tenant League and the large crowd protected him. Following this the Tenant League was banned by the British Governor, but the members refused to give in. Other ‘riots’ were mainly skirmishes between farmers and local police who were trying to collect the rents of the farmers. They became so common place that the governor had to request for troops to support his police forces. (17), (19)

Confederation as an answer??: 

Confederation as an answer?? Unsuccessful in fighting the British Crown, PEI had to come up with a new way to gain control of their surroundings. What better way then to enter into the union of Canada. At the Charlottetown Conference, PEI officials proposed that they would join in confederation provided a fund was created to buy the land from the landowners. This proposal was later withdrawn and PEI remained a colony. In 1873, the island government conceded and joined in the confederation of the provinces because their province was bankrupted. PEI was given a fund to purchase all remaining lands from landowners in Britain. (10) Was PEI successful in their Land League Movement? Not entirely, they did get attention for their cause because they fought for what they believed they deserved but unfortunately had to result to other options to attain their goal of owning their own lands and being out from under the thumb of landlords living an ocean away. Did this situation affect PEI today? Yes, PEI’s economy is based off of the land and this would not have been feasible had they not been able to gain ownership of these fertile farmlands

What is Women’s Suffrage?: 

What is Women’s Suffrage? “The term women's suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women.  The movement’s aims were to promote and secure such rights.  The movement's origins are usually traced to the United States in the 1820s. In the following century it spread throughout Europe and the countries colonized by Europe. Today women's suffrage is considered an uncontroversial right, although a few countries, mainly in the Middle East, continue to deny many women the vote.  Women’s suffrage included the exclusion of women in university.” Quoted from Wikipedia

Important Dates: 

Important Dates March 1891- Wearing white ribbons to symbolize purity, fifty Newfoundland women marched to the Colonial Building. They petitioned the members of the Government in St. John’s. They were fighting for the right for women to vote in local option contests. It took a total of thirty-four years before Newfoundland women would gain the right to vote and to be elected. The demands of these women, ultimately addressed the principle of women's suffrage and of women's roles in societies. (21)

continued: 

continued 1895- Women’s suffrage bill was defeated in Parliament.(23) 1906-A head tax of three hundred dollars, unquestionably restricted the immigration of Chinese women and children who might have joined the male members of their families in Newfoundland. In fact, many of the Chinese immigrants that came to Newfoundland were too poor to pay the tax. After Newfoundland joined confederation in 1949 the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1947 immediately applied to Newfoundland, resulting in an abolition of the head tax. Wives and children under twenty-one were eligible for sponsorship to enter Canada. In 1950 three Chinese women immigrated and joined their husbands here. (21)

continued: 

continued 1918-1925- Women in Atlantic Canada gain the right to vote. The provincial franchise for Nova Scotia women came on 26 April 1918. The following year, New Brunswick, approved women's suffrage on 17 April 1919. PEI, changed its franchise Act on 3 May 1922, and Newfoundland women gained the vote on 13 April 1925. In Nova Scotia, PEI and Newfoundland, the right to stand for provincial office accompanied voting rights, but New Brunswick avoided that radical step until 9 March 1934. (24)

Women’s Suffrage: 

Women’s Suffrage Grace Annie Lockhart from Saint John became the first woman in the British Empire to receive a university education. She graduated in 1875, receiving a Bachelor of Science and English literature from Mt. Allison University in Sackville New Brunswick.  Her academic achievements as a student showed the justice of women’s claim to full rights in the field of higher education. (22)

Summary : 

Summary The accomplishments of women who were willing to fight for their rights have to this day, a great impact on women’s lives. Through their petitioning, marches, and the various acts of protest they took part in, women ensured that other women in Atlantic Canada would receive equality. Through the women’s suffrage movement we saw women who gained the right to vote, hold office, and achieved the same education as men.

Fisheries: 

Fisheries Before 1908 the merchants in Newfoundland were in total control of the fishermen.(8) The merchants ran the industry by means of a barter system, this means that the system was ran without cash and the merchants kept the fishermen almost always in debt.(8) The fishermen would rely on a local merchant to supply him through the winter with flour, molasses, and tea, and then to outfit him for the fishing season.(7)

Fisheries: 

Fisheries These debts would be paid off with the summer harvest of fish.(7) Because the fishermen could never square their account, they were constantly bound to the local merchant who constituted the only market for his produce and the only source for the necessities of life.(7)

Fishermen’s Protective Union: 

Fishermen’s Protective Union Founded in 1908 by William Coaker, the Fisherman’s protective Union (FPU) was an early example of radical social movement activism in Newfoundland. (3) Coaker was born in St. Johns but was farming in Bonavista Bay when he began organizing his Fisherman’s Union. (8) Coaker was also an able speaker and journalist who appealed to the independent fisherman producer . (15)

Fishermen’s Protective Union : 

Fishermen’s Protective Union William Coaker began his efforts to seize the Newfoundland government or at least control the Newfoundland fishery from the merchants and place it in the hands of the fishermen. The Union made great headway in the mainly Protestant northern bays of the east coast. Then through the Union Party, it made a very successful entry into politics in the general election of 1913 when it won eight of the thirty-six seats in the House of Assembly. (15)

Fishermen’s Protective Union : 

Fishermen’s Protective Union The fishermen's protective Union called for an order of things in which the small producer would get fair value for his work and product and the middlemen and other exploiters would be eliminated. This would be achieved through co-operative buying and selling and by the construction of a new and democratic political order based on co-operative rather than competitive principles . (15)

Fishermen’s Protective Union : 

Fishermen’s Protective Union Under the pen name "Avaland" Joe Smallwood embraced Coaker's cause in a article from the Fishermen's Advocate of January 18, 1918. “The fisherman has at last come into his own- but we must not forget who put us where we are. We must not forget the man behind the gun, the super genius, the man who directed the fishermen's efforts, the man who put the fishermen of Newfoundland where they are today is Mr. William F. Coaker. I admire him. He is a man among men. He is a noble man is Mr. Coaker and I say it expecting nothing for saying it.” (7)

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed : 

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed Coaker's movement ran into strong opposition from the political and economic elite of the country and from the Roman Catholic church. It was then deflated from its original goals by the great war in which Newfoundland, like Canada and all of the countries of the British Empire, was automatically involved. (15)

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed: 

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed The Union movement did not regain its momentum after 1918. As minister of marine and fisheries in a Liberal reform government formed in 1919, Coaker introduced regulations to co-ordinate the activities of Newfoundland's highly individualistic fish exporter. However this attempt to regulate co-ordination failed, a failure with profound long-term consequences for Newfoundland. (15)

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed: 

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed As the economic historian David Alexander has written, “The failure to expand the fishing industry and, more importantly, to transform it in terms of the diversity of output and the technologies of catching, processing, packaging, and organized marketing, simply left Newfoundland fishermen less competitive than their rivals. (15)

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed: 

Reasons Why the Fishermen’s Protective Union Failed Evidence of this would be seen in the invasion of Newfoundland’s own fishing grounds by the fleets of a number of European countries, by a high level of emigration, and by economic and social stagnation. In 1911 Newfoundland's approximately 43,800 fishermen had accounted for about 53 per cent of her labor force; by 1935 figures were down to 35,000 and 40 per cent.” (15)

Maritime Rights Movement: 

Maritime Rights Movement Dates 1919-1927 The Maritime Rights Movement arose due to perceived unfair economic policies in Canada that were impacting the economies of the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.(19) The movement attempted to address issues relating to interprovincial trade barriers, freight rates on railways, and various other indicators that were believed to be behind an economic decline since the early 20th century.(19)

Build-Up to Maritime Rights Movement: 

Build-Up to Maritime Rights Movement 1763-Maritimes were continually divided politically by the conflicting jurisdictions and claims of French and British imperial interests.(5) 1867-Confederation promised to meet the political and economic aspirations of those who wanted unity while preserving existing colonial divisions.(5) Early 1900’s-Division and diversity were very prominent in the maritime economy, culture, and politics. The basic economic division lay between those industries whose products sold at prices determined largely in an international market and those which received tariff or other assistance in marketing their products nationally.(5)

Slide30: 

1920-1922- Business recession whole sale price index dropped from 203.2 in 1920 to 143.4 in 1921 and reached a low of 126.8 in 1922. Canadian imports and exports declined dramatically. Maritime industries were among the most severely affected by the recession.(5) By the end of 1921 the main reason for the Maritime Rights Movement was clear throughout the Maritimes. The main complaint were the unsettled demand for subsides in lieu of crown lands and the incorporation of the intercolonial in the Canadian National Railways. Locally there was also the failure to nationalize a revenue draining Saint John and Quebec Railway. Provide car ferry facilities and replace narrow gauge railways in Prince Edward Island.(5)

Slide31: 

Provide car ferry facilities and replace narrow gauge railways in Prince Edward Island.(5) To expand facilities and encourage the use of Maritime Ports.(5) To give rural communities a greater share in national programs to attract immigrants.(5) One of the greatest concerns of the region was the increase in freight rates.(5)

Objections of the Maritime Rights Movement: 

Objections of the Maritime Rights Movement The two objections common to all Maritimers were the unsettled demand for subsidies in lieu of crown lands and the incorporation of the Intercolonial in the Canadian National Railways (increase of freight rates). Regional objectives were failure to nationalize revenue draining Saint John & Quebec railways, provide car ferry facilities in PEI, encourage Maritime ports & help rural communities attract immigrants.(5)

Outcome of Maritime Rights Movement: 

Outcome of Maritime Rights Movement Was the Maritime Rights Movement successful?

Slide34: 

In 1921 the liberals swept 25 of 31 seats in the legislature and with a worsening economic depression the conservatives won 23 of 29 seats by 1926.(5) In 1926, the MacKenzie King Government appointed British lawyer Sir Andrew Duncan to investigate Maritime discontent. His recommendations of freight rate reductions and subsidy increases were implemented, but suggestions for subsides based on fiscal need and transportation use to encourage regional development were ignored. (5)

The Antigonish Movement: 

The Antigonish Movement The Antigonish Movement officially began in the late 1920’s and became operational in the early 1930’s. (12) If we were to ask what was the Antigonish movement?(12) Adult Education Corporations The Antigonish movement was a social and economic movement supported by the extension Department of St. Francis Xavier University. (12)

The Antigonish Movement: 

The Antigonish Movement During the 1920’s the Antigonish movement arose within a context which included several decades of adversity in fishing, mining, agriculture, and religious influences, each of these added its own reasons as to why the Antigonish movement occurred. (12) The Antigonish movement is a symbol of an activist heritage in adult education. (12)

The Extensions Department: 

The Extensions Department In 1928, St. Francis Xavier University board of governors asked Dr. Coady to establish the University Extensions Department. (12) Over the next two decades, the unique and successful extension work of St. Francis Xavier University became known world wide as the Antigonish Movement. (18)

The Development of the Antigonish movement: 

The Development of the Antigonish movement The Antigonish movement evolved from the pioneering work of Rev. Dr. Moses Coady and Rev Jimmy Tompkins in 1920’s. (18) Dr. Coady used a practical and successful strategy of adult education and group action that began with the immediate economic needs of the local people. (18)

Slide39: 

Dr. Coady started the local community development as a response to the poverty afflicting farmers, fishers, miners, and other disadvantaged groups. (18) This development enabled people to change their lives and their futures. The Antigonish movement continues to increase with the cooperation and networking of community based organizations and educational institutions. (18)

Slide40: 

Dr. Coady believed in cooperatives to address the problems generated by market capitalism, in the power of local community organizing to affect social reality and to achieve a more just and humane world. (12) The Antigonish movement gained the community skills in fish conservation, and marketing. (12)

The Antigonish Movement: 

The Antigonish Movement Building on the experiences of the Antigonish movement and on contemporary development practices, the Institute continues to provide programs that promote education, group action, and sustainable economic activities for disadvantaged groups. (18) The Antigonish Movement has influenced adult education and community development programs throughout the world. (18) In 1959, after Coady’s death, the St. FX university created the Coady International Institute. (18)

Wrapping Up…: 

Wrapping Up… 6 unique situations, 6 similar outcomes These social movements in Atlantic Canada, successful or not all helped to shape the face of Atlantic Canada as we know today. From fishing and land to education and religion to gender and industrial rights each movement had significant impacts on the individual regions the movements occurred in.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 1) Alexander, Anne. (1997). The Antigonish Movement: Moses Coady and Adult Education Today. Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc. 2) Clark A. H. (1960). Old World Origins and Religious Adherence in Nova Scotia. The Geographical Review, Volume L, Number 3. Retrieved from jstor.org on Oct. 13, 2007.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 3) Clement, D. (2003). Searching for rights in the age of activism: The Newfoundland-Labrador human rights association, 1968-1982. Newfoundland Studies 19, 2, 350-351. This article was found in a journal located in the Stfx library and it outlines all of the major human rights acts that have happened in Newfoundland. However none of them are talked about in any great detail. It simply outlines what the FPU stands for very briefly and then debates on whether the social movement was conservative or radical. 4) Clement, D. (2007, August 22). The IWW in Newfoundland. Canada's Rights Movement: A History. Retrieved September 23, 2007, from http://www.historyofrights.com/events/IWW.html This is a very short article that I found on the internet. It is very brief and it focuses more on the IWW then the Fishermen’s Protective Union. I did not use anything directly from this article however this is where I first found out what the FPU was and how it was the major social movement in Atlantic Canada when looking at fisheries. 5) Forbes, Ernest R., 1979. The Maritime Rights Movement: A Study in Canadian Regionalism This Book was a key element in my research on the Maritime Rights Movement. It explained exactly what the movement was about, reasons for why it happened, and had their opinion of weather it was successful or not. This Book went into more detail then any other web site or book I could find on this particular movement.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 5) Forbes, Ernest R., 1979. The Maritime Rights Movement: A Study in Canadian Regionalism This Book was a key element in my research on the Maritime Rights Movement. It explained exactly what the movement was about, reasons for why it happened, and had their opinion of weather it was successful or not. This Book went into more detail then any other web site or book I could find on this particular movement. 6) Gordon, S. (1974). Charisma and Integration: An Eighteenth-Century North American Case. Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 138-149. 7) Gwyn, R. (1968). Smallwood the unlikely revolutionary. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart limited. This book is a biography of Joseph Smallwood however it does go into some detail on the FPU. I used this book mainly for one of Smallwood’s quotes about Coaker that summed him up quite well and how the people thought of him around the time he was starting the FPU.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 8) Horwood, H. (1969). Newfoundland. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada. This is a book on the History of Newfoundland. Although it worked quite well for my topic the book does not go in chronological order and would be quite difficult to use as a primary source for someone writing a paper on the history of Newfoundland. However it would work very well for someone looking up a certain topic in Newfoundland history. 9) Library and Archives Canada (2005). The Absentee Landlord Question – Prince Edward Island. Retrieved September 28th 2007 from: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/confederation/023001-2952-e.html This source comes from the Library and Archives of Canada and easily lays out the landlord/tenant problems that existed in PEI. As a government source it has plenty of in depth and accurate details pertaining to the situation. It also tries to be unbiased from taking either the government or tenant side but clearly takes the Canadian side over the British.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 10) Library and Archives Canada (2005). The Tenant League/ Tenant League Riots. Retrieved September 28th 2007 from: http://www.collectionscanada.ca/confederation/023001-2993-e.html This source comes from the Canadian government and therefore should be considered quite accurate. The article is quite short, its only real drawback. But regardless of length it sums up the tenant league and the subsequent events that resulted from it. 11) MacPherson, Ian (2007). Antigonish Movement by Ian MacPherson. Retrieved October 2nd 2007 from: http://canadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1!RTA0000242 This website gave me the information I needed to know on, who started the Antigonish movement and why the Antigonish movement needed to be developed. Also this website provided me with the method they used to create the Antigonish movement and how it helped advance the community in the following years.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 12) McGrath, A. E.; Marks, D. C. (no date). The Blackwell Companion to Protestantism. Retrieved from Google Book Search on Oct. 13, 2007. 13) McKiernan, J. (no date). Oliver Ellsworth’s New Light Theology. Retrieved from http://www.earlyamerica.com on Oct. 13, 2007. 14) Neary, P. (1988). Newfoundland in the North Atlantic World, 1929-1949. Montreal: McGill- Queen's University Press. This is also a book on Newfoundland history and I found this book to be very useful. It went in chronological order and it is part of a series of Newfoundland history books all going in chronological order. The author went into great detail on Coaker and the FPU. I would strongly recommend this source to anyone writing a paper on Newfoundland

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 15) Noll, M. A. (no date) A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada. Retrieved from Google Book Search on Oct. 13, 2007. 16) Robertson, Ian R. (2007). Tenant League by Ian R. Robertson. Retrieved October 4th 2007 from: http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0007915 Robertson’s article was informative but not necessarally 100% accurate. It was very brief and direct in how it got to the meat and bones of the situation within a single paragraph. The site lists no references of where the background material came from and has no significant credibility for the site as a whole, even though the information given seems correct when compared to similar sources.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 17) St. FX Archives (2005). Coady History. Retrieved October 15th 2007 from: http://www.coady.stfx.ca/history.cfm This St.FX website, gave me a understanding of who Dr. Coady was, and how he started the development programs that launched the Antigonish movement. This website gave me insight to how St.FX education made resources available to the community. 18) Wikipedia, Author Unknown (2007). Tenant League. Retrieved October 4th 2007 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenant_League This source, while accurate, has to be used with caution because it is a public domain source, and as such could be written by anyone. The source has to be compared with others to check its reliability as a credible source. Fortunately, in this case the information seems accurate to the details from other sources.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 19) Wikipedia, Author Unknown (2007). Maritime Rights Movement. Retrieved October 5th 2007 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maritime_Rights_Movement This web site helped give me the basic understanding of what the Maritime Rights Movement was. It did not go onto a whole lot of detail, as it is Wikipedia, but it did help in the matter of getting the basic knowledge of what happened and the reasons for the Maritime Rights Movement. 20) Retrieved October 1, 2007, from Saint John's Women's Walk. Web site: http://heritage.nf.ca/society/womenswalk/wtour1_7.html This source was very beneficial for my research on Women’s Suffrage in Atlantic Canada. The focus of this website is on women from Newfoundland. The focus was drawn towards what women in Newfoundland did to participate in women’s suffrage, and how they went about making changes. Included in this website, are photographic examples of women’s suffrage. There is an example of a letter written by women, on the topic of women’s suffrage. This gives a helpful look at what women did to help make them achieve equality. This website also had elements directed towards the large population of Chinese males in Newfoundland, due to the high head tax fee.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 21) Retrieved October 1, 2007, from the Canadian Encyclopedia. Website: http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0004741 This link from The Canadian Encyclopedia, gave reference to a woman who achieved success in obtaining a university degree. This site focuses on Grace Lockhart, and gives a very brief biography of her life. I found this site, while it lacked a surplus of information, beneficial. It told you the necessary facts on who she was, and why she was important for women’s suffrage in Atlantic Canada. 22) Retrieved October 4, 2007, from Women in Politics in Atlantic Canada. Web site: http://72.14.205.104/search?q=cache:tYlH75Uh0BQJ:atlanticportal.hil.unb.ca:8000/archive/00000052/01/Atlantic_Canadian_Women_2005.pdf+women+in+politics+in+atlantic+canada&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2 In researching for women’s suffrage, the social movement that changed the lives of women all over Atlantic Canada, I used this site to help improve my understanding. This site was advantageous in preparing a presentation that would enlighten my fellow classmates on the topic of women’s suffrage. The information found in this web site was of good quality and was relevant to my studies of the social movement know as women’s suffrage.

Annotated Bibliography: 

Annotated Bibliography 23) Retrieved October 4, 2007, from The Canadian Encyclopedia. Web site: http://thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?pgNm=TCE&Params=A1SEC830191 The web site for The Canadian Encyclopedia once again proved to be an asset to researching women’s suffrage in Atlantic Canada. This part of the web site pays attention to the governmental aspect of women’s suffrage. We find here, the dates when women in Atlantic Canada gained the right to vote in elections. Also the dates for when they were able to run for political office were given. I found that this web site was crucial for my research, as the right to vote would greatly influence the lives of women in Atlantic Canada. 24) Retrieved October 4, 2007, from Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia Web http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women's_suffrage While this site did not focus on women’s suffrage in Atlantic Canada, it gave an understandable definition of what women’s suffrage was. From this site we learn the basic necessities when dealing with women’s suffrage. This site was beneficial for what was needed, and provided what was sought; a definition to explain what women’s suffrage is.