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CellForce®: 

CellForce® A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL MATERIAL EVALUATIONS AND BATTERY PERFORMANCE RESULTS Rick Wimberly MPLP Giovanni Terzaghi Termar SRL

OUTLINE: 

OUTLINE Background of CellForce Development Objectives Milestones Material Analysis & Characterization Pore Structure Antimony Suppression Analysis Battery Performance Testing Battery Manufacturers MPLP Technical Center Summary & Future Work

MILESTONES for CellForce A Natural Extension of Over 70 Years Experience with Rubber Battery Separator Manufacturing : 

MILESTONES for CellForce A Natural Extension of Over 70 Years Experience with Rubber Battery Separator Manufacturing 1999- First Prototypes 9/2000- Introduced to the Industry at BCI Convention and 7ELBC 1/2001- Manufacturing Line Commissioned 6/2001- Patent Coverage Issued

Development Objectives: 

Development Objectives Electrochemical Benefits of Rubber Stable TOC Voltage During Cycling Reduced Battery Maintenance Handling Characteristics of PE Envelope and Sleeve Designs Puncture and Tear Resistant Compatible with Established Separator Manufacturing Methods Basic PE Manufacturing Process Competitive Pricing

REDUCED ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE For CellForce (24 Hour Soak): 

REDUCED ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE For CellForce (24 Hour Soak) Regular PE CellForce CellForce is 25% Less

EXAMPLE OF LOWERED ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE: 

EXAMPLE OF LOWERED ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE C5 Capacity @ 570 Ah 1 Hour Rate CellForce 1:14:45 PE 1:10:25 Approximate 5% Improvement 30 Minute Rate CellForce 35:55 PE 33:10 Approximate 8% Improvement

Slide7: 

PE CellForce

MICROSTRUCTURE Normal PE: 

MICROSTRUCTURE Normal PE

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce Fresh: 

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce Fresh

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce Cycled: 

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce Cycled

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce: 

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce: 

MICROSTRUCTURE CellForce

Capillary Flow Porometry Shows Increased Electrolyte Transfer: 

Capillary Flow Porometry Shows Increased Electrolyte Transfer Electrolyte Flow Blind Pores Less Tortuous Path

LIQUID FLOW RATE CellForce vs. PE: 

LIQUID FLOW RATE CellForce vs. PE CellForce PE

Development Objectives: 

Development Objectives Electrochemical Benefits of Rubber Stable TOC Voltage During Cycling Reduced Battery Maintenance The Key to this is Suppression of Antimony Transfer and The Maintenance of Negative Plate On-Charge Voltage

ANTIMONY TRANSFER: 

ANTIMONY TRANSFER - MECHANISM - ? Physical Effect Pores Act as Barrier to Antimony Separator Absorbs or Traps Antimony Chemical Effect Suppresses Antimony Plating Suppresses Antimony Gassing

Slide17: 

Cyclic Voltammetry Pb SO4 Pb QC QD QC QD X 100 = % Charge Efficiency Pb SO4 Pb

Slide18: 

Cyclic Voltammetry Blank Response BLANK WITH SEPARATOR LEACHATE

Slide19: 

NO SEPARATOR LEACHATE RUBBER SEPARATOR LEACHATE

Slide20: 

Cyclic Voltammetry Antimony Suppression Analysis Confirms Chemical Effect

Slide21: 

CHEMICAL TRANSFER ? Suppresses Antimony Plate - Out Suppresses Antimony Gassing

CellForce Separator Negative Side: 

CellForce Separator Negative Side

CellForce Separator Negative Side Antimony Deposit: 

CellForce Separator Negative Side Antimony Deposit

CellForce Separator Negative Side Lead Deposits: 

CellForce Separator Negative Side Lead Deposits

CellForce Separator Negative Side EDS Spectrum: 

CellForce Separator Negative Side EDS Spectrum

CellForce Separator Positive Side Lead and Antimony Deposits: 

CellForce Separator Positive Side Lead and Antimony Deposits Antimony Deposits Lead Deposits

CellForce Separator Positive Side EDS Spectrum: 

CellForce Separator Positive Side EDS Spectrum

CellForce Separator Cross Section: 

CellForce Separator Cross Section No Measurable Antimony or Lead

CellForce vs. FLEX-SIL Negative Side Deposits: 

CellForce vs. FLEX-SIL Negative Side Deposits CellForce FLEX-SIL Antimony Lead

CellForce vs. FLEX-SIL Positive Side Deposits: 

CellForce vs. FLEX-SIL Positive Side Deposits CellForce FLEX-SIL Lead Antimony

CellForce vs. FLEX-SIL Cross Section: 

CellForce vs. FLEX-SIL Cross Section CellForce FLEX-SIL No Sb or Pb Sulfur No Sb or Pb No S

FLEX-SIL NEGATIVE SIDE DEPOSITS : 

FLEX-SIL NEGATIVE SIDE DEPOSITS Lead Antimony

MOTIVE POWER BATTERY TESTING : 

MOTIVE POWER BATTERY TESTING Accelerated Life Testing PE vs. CellForce

TESTING DETAILS: 

TESTING DETAILS Controls (PE) versus CellForce Regular PE PE with Additive for Sb Suppression Cell Capacity C6 at 425 Ah 11 Plate, 6% Sb Pos & 3% Sb Neg 2 Cycles/24 hours 80% DoD IEI Re-Charge Regimen

Slide35: 

PE+ PE CellForce

Slide36: 

PE+ CellForce PE

Slide37: 

PE High Initial Voltage CellForce PE PE+ At 1800 Cycles ~ 30 mV Higher

Slide38: 

CellForce PE+ & PE Divergence 9 to 14% Less Water used

MOTIVE POWER BATTERY TESTING : 

MOTIVE POWER BATTERY TESTING Low Maintenance Life Testing PE (17% Oil) vs. CellForce (15%) vs. CellForce (10%)

CellForce MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS VS. OIL CONTENT: 

CellForce MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS VS. OIL CONTENT

TEST METHOD: 

TEST METHOD Low Maintenance Pulse Charging 5%C5 Overcharge per Cycle 80% DoD Capacity Check at 50 Cycle Intervals

TEST METHOD: 

TEST METHOD Fixed Overcharge Testing Continuous Cycling 3 Hr Discharge @ C5 (75% DoD) 9 Hr Charge at Charge Factor of 1,152 Measured Capacity @ 50 Cycle Intervals

Slide44: 

PE CellForce 15% CellForce 10%

Slide45: 

PE CellForce 15% CellForce 10%

Slide46: 

CellForce 10% & 15% PE

TESTING DETAILS: 

TESTING DETAILS Control PE vs. CellForce 8 V Locomotive Battery C8 650 Ahr Ambient Temp 100 A - 4 Hr. Discharge to 60% DoD Two-step Recharge to 1,12 Charge Factor Step 1- 2,40 V @ 0,15 C8 for 5,25 hrs (98%) Step 2- 2,40 V @ 0,05 C8 for 2 hours (112%)

Slide48: 

CellForce PE

Half Cell Voltages End of Boost Charge: 

Half Cell Voltages End of Boost Charge

Slide50: 

CellForce Control PE CellForce 5% less

DEEP CYCLE BATTERY TESTING: 

DEEP CYCLE BATTERY TESTING BCI Life Cycle Testing PE vs. CellForce Life—EOCC—Water Loss

Slide52: 

GC-2 BATTERY TESTING FLEX-SIL Rubber Separator >700 cycles PE 388 cycles CellForce 453 cycles

Slide53: 

GC-2 BATTERY TESTING PE CellForce

Slide54: 

GC-2 BATTERY TESTING

SUMMARY: 

SUMMARY Chemical versus Physical Nature of Antimony Suppression Proven with Battery Test Data CellForce Being Used Successfully Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific Both Flat Plate and Tubular Motive Power, Deep Cycle, Stationary Flooded and Gel No Field Related Problems Reported Normal Battery Failure Modes No Oil Release Incidents Lower ER Improved Material and Battery Related Characteristics TOC Voltage & Battery Maintenance Extension of Cycle Life

FUTURE WORK: 

FUTURE WORK Optimize the Beneficial Effect of the Natural Rubber Component Continue Investigation of Effects of Residual Oil Content on Key Material Properties Complete Further Investigations of Antimony Suppression Mechanism Continue Development of the Next Generation CellForce