Basic Electronics (Outline) The Elements of Electricity
Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics (Measuring Electricity)
Circuit Diagrams Basics (Electronic Roadmaps)
The Resistor
Ohm’s Law
The Capacitor
The Inductor
The Diode
The Transistor (Electronic Valve)

The Elements of Electricity:

The Elements of Electricity Voltage
Current
Resistance
Types of Current: AC and DC
Circuits
Closed
Open
Short

Voltage, Current, and Resistance:

Voltage, Current, and Resistance Water flowing through a hose is a good way to imagine electricity
Water is like Electrons in a wire (flowing electrons are called Current)
Pressure is the force pushing water through a hose – Voltage is the force pushing electrons through a wire
Friction against the holes walls slows the flow of water – Resistance is an impediment that slows the flow of electrons

Forms of Current:

Forms of Current There are 2 types of current
The form is determined by the directions the current flows through a conductor
Direct Current (DC)
Flows in only one direction from negative toward positive pole of source
Alternating Current (AC)
Flows back and forth because the poles of the source alternate between positive and negative

AC Current Vocabulary:

AC Current Vocabulary Time Period of One Cycle

Circuits:

Circuits A circuit is a path for current to flow
Three basic kinds of circuits
Open – the path is broken and interrupts current flow
Closed – the path is complete and current flows were it is intended
Short – an unintended low resistance path that divers current

Volt-Ohm-Meter (VOM) Basics (Measuring Electricity) Common Functions
Voltage
AC/DC
Ranges
Current
AC/DC
Ranges
Resistance (DC only)
Ranges
Continuity
Semi-conductor Performance
Transistors
Diodes
Capacitance

Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics:

Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics Meter Reading Digits DC Voltage Scales AC Voltage Scales Jacks Function Selection

Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics:

Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics Resistance DC Current (low) DC Current (high) Transistor Checker Diode Checker

Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics (Measuring Electricity):

Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics (Measuring Electricity) Measuring voltage
Voltage type
Scaling
Safety
Physical (personal)
Equipment
Measuring current
Current type
Scaling
Safety
Physical (personal)
Equipment
Measuring resistance
Scaling

Measuring Voltage - Safety:

Measuring Voltage - Safety When measuring voltage, the voltage being measured is exposed to the operator and flowing through the probes. Be cautious, be attentive, watch what you touch!
The probes have sharp points so that you can make precise contacts. Use the protective shields when probes not in use.
Observe the meter maximum limits for voltage and current. Fuses are a last resort protection feature. If you blow a fuse, you made a mistake!

Measuring voltage:

Measuring voltage Voltage type – DC and AC
When measuring voltage, the meter probes are placed across the voltage source.
The VOM uses two separate functions and ranges to measure DC and AC.
Because AC is a constantly changing wave form, measuring AC voltages is not a simple matter.
This VOM measures pseudo-Root Mean Square (RMS) voltages

Measuring voltage:

Measuring voltage Meter Set-up
Scale set to highest
Probes into right jacks
Note voltage polarity +

Measuring Voltage :

Measuring Voltage Select 9-volt battery
Set-up VOM on 600V DC Scale
Touch red probe to (+)
Touch black probe to (–)
Read voltage to nearest 1 volt

Measuring Voltage:

Measuring Voltage Now touch the red probe to (-)
Touch the black probe to (+)
Read voltage to nearest 1 volt, note the minus sign that signifies a negative voltage

Measuring Voltage:

Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 200V DC Scale
Touch red probe to (+)
Touch black probe to (–)
Read voltage to nearest .1 volt

Measuring Voltage:

Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 20V DC Scale
Touch red probe to (+)
Touch black probe to (–)
Read voltage to nearest .01 volt

Measuring Voltage:

Measuring Voltage Select 1.5-volt battery
Set-up VOM on 20V DC Scale
Touch red probe to (+)
Touch black probe to (–)
Read voltage to nearest .01 volt

Measuring Voltage:

Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 2000mV DC Scale
This scale is reading 2000 milli-volts
(or 2 volts)
Touch red probe to (+)
Touch black probe to (–)
Using a 1.5 volt battery - read voltage to nearest .001 volt

Measuring Voltage:

Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 2000m V DC Scale
Touch red probe to (+)
Touch black probe to (–)
Using a 9 volt battery
This is clearly an over-voltage situation, note the reading.

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current Negative
Source Positive
Source

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current There is a greater potential for meter damage when measuring current than with any other function.
Just as in voltage, there are two kinds of current associated with the voltage, AC and DC.
This meter will only measure DC current, more expensive meters will measure both currents.
To measure current, the VOM must be inserted into the circuit so that the current flows through the meter.

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current There are two current ranges, high – up to 10 amps, and low – 200 milliamps (.2 amps) and below.
Internal fuses provide some meter protection for over current situations.
Because there is such a wide range between the current scales, there are two physical probe jacks for the two ranges
This allows for better protection, a hardy fuse to handle up to 10 amps of current and a more fragile fuse to protect the sensitive circuits needed to measure small currents.
Don’t count on the fuses to protect the meter!

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current CAUTION!!!!!!! There must be some resistance in the circuit or the current flow through the circuit will be the maximum the source will produce, AND THIS CURRENT LEVEL COULD DAMAGE THE VOM!
In other words, DO NOT CONNECT THE VOM PROBES DIRECTLY ACROSS THE BATTERY POLES IN THE CURRENT MEASURMENT FUNCTION!

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current We will be demonstrating some concepts during the current measurement exercises that will be covered in more detail later, so be patient, it will all come together in the end.
In the following exercises you will use various resistors to limit the current flow in a simple circuit.

The Proto Board:

The Proto Board

Measuring CurrentBasic Circuit:

Measuring Current Basic Circuit Battery VOM Resistor + -

First Current Measurement:

First Current Measurement Set up the circuit using a 100 ohm resistor (brown, black, brown).
Connect a wire to the + power source, connect another wire to the top end of the resistor (the non grounded end).
Set VOM current scale to 200 m. (m here is short for mA)
Without connecting the battery, practice touching the VOM probes to the exposed wire ends.

First Current Measurement:

First Current Measurement Connect the battery.
With the VOM set to the 200 m current scale, touch the black lead to the wire hooked to the top side of the resistor.
Touch the red lead to the lead coming from the + side of the battery.
Note the VOM reading.

First Current Measurement:

First Current Measurement Now reverse the VOM leads and note the reading.

First Current Measurement:

First Current Measurement Return the VOM leads so that the red is connected to the battery.
Change the VOM current ranges down and note the display readings
What is the best range for measuring the current from a 9 volt source through a 100 ohm resistor? 200 m Range 20 m Range

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current Wire the circuit with a 1k ohm resistor (brown, black, red).
Measure current using the 200 m range.

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current What is the best range to measure the current through a 1 k-ohm resistor? 200 m 20 m 2000 u

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current Wire the circuit with a 10 k-ohm resistor (brown, black, orange).
Measure current with the 2000 u range.

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current What is the best range to use to measure the current through a 10 k-ohm resistor at 9 volts?
2000 u 200 u

Measuring Current:

Measuring Current Wire the circuit with a 100 k-ohm resistor (brown, black, yellow).
Begin with the 2000 m range, and measure the current at each range.
What is the best range to use to measure the current trough a 100 k-ohm resistor at 9-volts?

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance When the VOM is used to measure resistance, what actually is measured is a small current applied to the component.
There are 5 ranges. An out of resistance reading will be indicated by a single “1” digit. Remember k means multiply the reading by 1000.
Operating voltages should be removed from the component under test or you could damage the VOM at worst, or the reading could be in error at best.

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance Disconnect the battery from the board, remember to measure resistance with the circuit un-powered.
Put the 100 ohm resistor in place, no additional wires are required.
Select the 200 ohm range and touch the probe leads to both sides of the resistor.

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance Now reverse the probe leads and observe the reading.
Any difference?

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance Now using the 100 ohm resistor, measure the resistance using each of the other ranges.
Note that the resolution of the reading decreases as the maximum ohm reading increases, down to the point where it is difficult to get a useful resistance reading. 2000 ohm 20 k-ohm 200 k-ohm 2000 k-ohm

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance Now use the 1k ohm resistor and the 200 range.
Explain the reading you observe.
Find the appropriate range to measure 1,000 ohms (1 k-ohm). 200 2000

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance Now use the 10 k-ohm and the 100 k-ohm resistor.
First determine the appropriate range to use for each resistor.
Second make the resistance measurements
Third, using higher ranges, predict the reading and confirm your prediction by taking the measurements

Measuring Resistance:

Measuring Resistance Just for fun, use the VOM to measure the resistance offered between different body parts.
The voltage and current used by the VOM is not dangerous.
Discuss your observations and how your measurement techniques could influence the readings you get from the VOM.

Special Battery Speaker Voltmeter Ampmeter Antenna Fuse

The Resistor:

The Resistor Resistance defined
Resistance values
Ohms – color code interpretation
Power dissipation
Resistors in circuits
Series
Parallel
Combination

Resistance Defined:

Resistance Defined Resistance is the impediment to the flow of electrons through a conductor
(friction to moving electrons)
Where there’s friction, there is heat generated
All materials exhibit some resistance, even the best of conductors
Unit measured in Ohm(s)
From 1/10 of Ohms to millions of Ohms

Resistor Types:

Resistor Types Fixed Value
Variable value
Composite resistive material
Wire-wound
Two parameters associated with resistors
Resistance value in Ohms
Power handling capabilities in watts

All 1000 Ohm Resistors:

All 1000 Ohm Resistors 1/8 ¼ ½ 1 2 20

Resistor Types:

Resistor Types

Resistor Types:

Resistor Types

Inside a Resistor:

Inside a Resistor

Reading Resistor Color Codes:

Reading Resistor Color Codes Turn resistor so gold, silver band, or space is at right
Note the color of the two left hand color bands
The left most band is the left hand value digit
The next band to the right is the second value digit
Note the color of the third band from the left, this is the multiplier
Multiply the 2 value digits by the multiplier

Power dissipation Resistance generates heat and the component must be able to dissipate this heat to prevent damage.
Physical size (the surface area available to dissipate heat) is a good indicator of how much heat (power) a resistor can handle
Measured in watts
Common values ¼, ½, 1, 5, 10 etc.

Resistors in CircuitsSeries:

Resistors in Circuits Series Looking at the current path, if there is only one path, the components are in series.

Resistors in CircuitsSeries:

Resistors in Circuits Series

Resistors in CircuitsSeries:

Resistors in Circuits Series On your proto board set up the following circuit using the resistance values indicated on the next slide.
Calculate the equivalent resistant RE and measure the resistance with your VOM.
R1 R2

Resistors in CircuitsSeries:

Resistors in Circuits Series

Resistors in CircuitsParallel:

Resistors in Circuits Parallel If there is more than one way for the current to complete its path, the circuit is a parallel circuit.

Resistors in CircuitsParallel:

Resistors in Circuits Parallel

Resistors in CircuitsParallel:

Resistors in Circuits Parallel On your proto board set up the following circuit using the resistance values indicated on the next slide.
Calculate the equivalent resistant RE and measure the resistance with your VOM R1 R2

Resistors in CircuitsParallel:

Resistors in Circuits Parallel

Resistors in CircuitsParallel Challenge:

Resistors in Circuits Parallel Challenge Make a circuit with 3 resistors in parallel, calculate the equivalent resistance then measure it.
R1 = 330 ohm
R2 = 10 k-ohm
R3 = 4.7 k-ohm

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed If the path for the current in a portion of the circuit is a single path, and in another portion of the circuit has multiple routes, the circuit is a mix of series and parallel.

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed Let’s start with a relatively simple mixed circuit. Build this using:
R1 = 330
R2 = 4.7K
R3 = 2.2K R1 R2 R3

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed Take the parallel segment of the circuit and calculate the equivalent resistance:
R1 330 R2 4.7K R3 2.2K

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed We now can look at the simplified circuit as shown here. The parallel resistors have been replaced by a single resistor with a value of 1498 ohms.
Calculate the resistance of this series circuit:
RE=1498 R1 330

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed In this problem, divide the problem into sections, solve each section and then combine them all back into the whole.
R1 = 330
R2 = 1K
R3 = 2.2K
R4 = 4.7K R1 R2 R3 R4

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed Looking at this portion of the circuit, the resistors are in series.
R2 = 1k-ohm
R3 = 2.2 k-ohm R2 R3

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed Substituting the equivalent resistance just calculated, the circuit is simplified to this.
R1 = 330 ohm
R4 = 4.7 k-ohm
RE = 3.2 k-ohm
Now look at the parallel resistors RE and R4. R1 RE R4

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed Using the parallel formula for:
RE = 3.2 k-ohm
R4 = 4.7 k-ohm RE R4

Resistors in CircuitsMixed:

Resistors in Circuits Mixed The final calculations involve R1 and the new RTotal from the previous parallel calculation.
R1 = 330
RE = 1.9K R1 RTotal

Ohm’s Law The mathematical relationship
E=I*R
Doing the math
Kirchhoff’s law
A way to predict circuit behavior
It all adds up
Nothing is lost

Ohm’s Law:

Ohm’s Law There is a mathematical relationship between the three elements of electricity. That relationship is Ohm’s law.
E = volts
R = resistance in ohms
I = current in amps

Ohm’s Law:

Ohm’s Law

Ohm’s Law:

Ohm’s Law This is the basic circuit that you will use for the following exercises.
The VOM will be moved to measure voltage,resistance and current.

Ohm’s Law Exercise 1:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 1 Wire this circuit using a 100 ohm resistor.
Without power applied measure the resistance of the resistor.
Connect the 9 volt battery and measure the voltage across the resistor.
Record your data.

Ohm’s Law Exercise 1:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 1 Using the voltage and resistance data in Ohm’s law, calculate the anticipated current.
Example data results in a current of .09 amps or 90 milliamps

Ohm’s Law Exercise 1:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 1 Insert the VOM into the circuit as indicated in this diagram.
Using the appropriate current range, measure the actual current in the circuit.
How does the measured current compare to your prediction using Ohm’s law?

Ohm’s Law Exercise 2:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 2 Select the 1K ohm resistor and create the illustrated circuit.
Pretend for this exercise that you do not know what the voltage of the battery is.
Measure the resistance with power removed and then the current with power applied.
Record your data.

Ohm’s Law Exercise 2:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 2 Using the current and resistance data taken in the last step use Ohm’s law to calculate the anticipated voltage.
The example data results in a voltage of 9.73 volts

Ohm’s Law Exercise 2:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 2 Connect the VOM into the circuit as indicated in this diagram.
Using the appropriate voltage range, measure the actual voltage across the resistor.
How does the voltage compare to your prediction using Ohm’s law?

Ohm’s Law Exercise 3:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 3 In this exercise you will use an unknown resistor supplied by your instructor.
Create the circuit illustrated and measure the voltage and current.
Record your data.

Ohm’s Law Exercise 3:

Ohm’s Law Exercise 3 Using Ohm’s law with the voltage and current, calculate the value of resistance.
The example data results in a resistance of 3844 ohms.

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice The next series of exercises will put Ohm’s Law to use to illustrate some principles of basic electronics.
As in the previous exercise you will build the circuits and insert the VOM into the circuit in the appropriate way to make current and voltage measurements.
Throughout the exercise record your data so that you can compare it to calculations.

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Build up the illustrated circuit.
R1 = 1 k-ohm
R2 = 1 k-ohm
R3 = 2.2 k-ohm
R4 = 300 ohm
Measure the current flowing through the circuit. R1 R2 R3 R4 + -

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Now move the VOM to the other side of the circuit and measure the current.
The current should be the same as the previous measurement. + -

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Insert the VOM at the indicated location and measure the current.
There should be no surprise that the current is the same. + -

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Measure the voltage across R1.
Using Ohm’s law, calculate the voltage drop across a 1K ohm resistor at the current you measured
Compare the result.

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice In this next step, you will insert the VOM in the circuit at two places illustrated at the right as #1 and #2.
Record your current readings for both places.
Add the currents and compare and contrast to the current measured entering the total circuit. #1 #2

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Using the current measured through #1 and the resistance value of R2, 1k ohms, calculate the voltage drop across the resistor.
Likewise do the same with the current measured through #2 and the resistance value of R3, 2.2k ohms.
Compare and contrast these two voltage values

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Measure the voltage across the parallel resistors and record your answer.
Compare and contrast the voltage measured to the voltage drop calculated.

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice In the next step, insert the VOM into the circuit as illustrated, measure and record the current.
Compare and contrast the current measured to the total current measured in a previous step.
Were there any surprises?

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice Using the current you just measured and the resistance of R4 (330 ohms), calculate what the voltage drop across R4 should be.
Insert the VOM into the circuit as illustrated and measure the voltage.
Compare and contrast the measured and calculated voltages.

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice There is one final measurement to complete this portion of the exercise. Insert the VOM as indicated.
Recall the 3 voltages measured previously; across R1, R2 and R3, and across R4.
Add these three voltages together and then compare and contrast the result with the total voltage just measured.

Ohm’s Law In Practice:

Ohm’s Law In Practice What you observed was:
The sum of the individual currents entering a node was equal to the total current leaving a node .
The sum of the voltage drops was equal to the total voltage across the circuit.
This is Kirchhoff’s law and is very useful in the study of electronic circuits.
You also noted that Ohm’s law applied throughout the circuit.

The Capacitor:

The Capacitor Capacitance defined
Physical construction
Types
How construction affects values
Power ratings
Capacitor performance with AC and DC currents
Capacitance values
Numbering system
Capacitors in circuits
Series
Parallel
Mixed

The Capacitor:

The Capacitor

The CapacitorDefined:

The Capacitor Defined A device that stores energy in electric field.
Two conductive plates separated by a non conductive material.
Electrons accumulate on one plate forcing electrons away from the other plate leaving a net positive charge.
Think of a capacitor as very small, temporary storage battery.

The Capacitor Physical Construction:

The Capacitor Physical Construction Capacitors are rated by:
Amount of charge that can be held.
The voltage handling capabilities.
Insulating material between plates.

The CapacitorAbility to Hold a Charge:

The Capacitor Ability to Hold a Charge Ability to hold a charge depends on:
Conductive plate surface area.
Space between plates.
Material between plates.

Charging a Capacitor:

Charging a Capacitor

Charging a Capacitor:

Charging a Capacitor In the following activity you will charge a capacitor by connecting a power source (9 volt battery) to a capacitor.
You will be using an electrolytic capacitor, a capacitor that uses polarity sensitive insulating material between the conductive plates to increase charge capability in a small physical package.
Notice the component has polarity identification + or -. +

Charging a Capacitor:

Charging a Capacitor Touch the two leads of the capacitor together.
This short circuits the capacitor to make sure there is no residual charge left in the capacitor.
Using your VOM, measure the voltage across the leads of the capacitor

Charging a Capacitor:

Charging a Capacitor Wire up the illustrated circuit and charge the capacitor.
Power will only have to be applied for a moment to fully charge the capacitor.
Quickly remove the capacitor from the circuit and touch the VOM probes to the capacitor leads to measure the voltage.
Carefully observe the voltage reading over time until the voltage is at a very low level (down to zero volts).

Discharging a Capacitor:

Discharging a Capacitor

The CapacitorBehavior in DC:

The Capacitor Behavior in DC When connected to a DC source, the capacitor charges and holds the charge as long as the DC voltage is applied.
The capacitor essentially blocks DC current from passing through.

The CapacitorBehavior in AC:

The Capacitor Behavior in AC When AC voltage is applied, during one half of the cycle the capacitor accepts a charge in one direction.
During the next half of the cycle, the capacitor is discharged then recharged in the reverse direction.
During the next half cycle the pattern reverses.
It acts as if AC current passes through a capacitor

The CapacitorBehavior:

The Capacitor Behavior A capacitor blocks the passage of DC current
A capacitor passes AC current

The CapacitorCapacitance Value:

The Capacitor Capacitance Value The unit of capacitance is the farad.
A single farad is a huge amount of capacitance.
Most electronic devices use capacitors that are a very tiny fraction of a farad.
Common capacitance ranges are:
Micro 10-6
Nano 10-9
Pico 10-12

The CapacitorCapacitance Value:

The Capacitor Capacitance Value Capacitor identification depends on the capacitor type.
Could be color bands, dots, or numbers.
Wise to keep capacitors organized and identified to prevent a lot of work trying to re-identify the values.

Capacitors in Circuits:

Capacitors in Circuits Three physical factors affect capacitance values.
Plate spacing
Plate surface area
Dielectric material
In series, plates are far apart making capacitance less + - Charged plates far apart

Capacitors in Circuits:

Capacitors in Circuits In parallel, the surface area of the plates add up to be greater.
This makes the total capacitance higher. + -

The Inductor:

The Inductor Inductance defined
Physical construction
How construction affects values
Inductor performance with AC and DC currents

The Inductor:

The Inductor There are two fundamental principles of electromagnetics:
Moving electrons create a magnetic field.
Moving or changing magnetic fields cause electrons to move.
An inductor is a coil of wire through which electrons move, and energy is stored in the resulting magnetic field.

The Inductor:

The Inductor Like capacitors, inductors temporarily store energy.
Unlike capacitors:
Inductors store energy in a magnetic field, not an electric field.
When the source of electrons is removed, the magnetic field collapses immediately.

The Inductor:

The Inductor Inductors are simply coils of wire.
Can be air wound (just air in the middle of the coil)
Can be wound around a permeable material (material that concentrates magnetic fields)
Can be wound around a circular form (toroid)

The Inductor:

The Inductor Inductance is measured in Henry(s).
A Henry is a measure of the intensity of the magnetic field that is produced.
Typical inductor values used in electronics are in the range of millihenry (1/1000 Henry) and microhenry (1/1,000,000 Henry)

The Inductor:

The Inductor The amount of inductance is influenced by a number of factors:
Number of coil turns.
Diameter of coil.
Spacing between turns.
Size of the wire used.
Type of material inside the coil.

Inductor Performance With DC Currents:

Inductor Performance With DC Currents When a DC current is applied to an inductor, the increasing magnetic field opposes the current flow and the current flow is at a minimum.
Finally, the magnetic field is at its maximum and the current flows to maintain the field.
As soon as the current source is removed, the magnetic field begins to collapse and creates a rush of current in the other direction, sometimes at very high voltage.

Inductor Performance With AC Currents:

Inductor Performance With AC Currents When AC current is applied to an inductor, during the first half of the cycle, the magnetic field builds as if it were a DC current.
During the next half of the cycle, the current is reversed and the magnetic field first has to decrease the reverse polarity in step with the changing current.
These forces can work against each other resulting in a lower current flow.

The Inductor:

The Inductor Because the magnetic field surrounding an inductor can cut across another inductor in close proximity, the changing magnetic field in one can cause current to flow in the other … the basis of transformers

The Diode:

The Diode The semi-conductor phenomena
Diode performance with AC and DC currents
Diode types
General purpose
LED
Zenier

The DiodeThe semi-conductor phenomena:

The Diode The semi-conductor phenomena Atoms in a metal allow a “sea” of electrons that are relatively free to move about.
Semiconducting materials like Silicon and Germanium have fewer free electrons.
Impurities added to semiconductor material can either add free electrons or create an absence of free electrons (holes).

The DiodeThe semi-conductor phenomena:

The Diode The semi-conductor phenomena Consider the bar of silicon at the right.
One side of the bar is doped with negative material (excess electrons). The cathode.
The other side is doped with positive material (excess holes). The anode
In between is a no man’s land called the P-N Junction.

The DiodeThe semi-conductor phenomena:

The Diode The semi-conductor phenomena Consider now applying a negative voltage to the anode and positive voltage to the cathode.
The electrons are attracted away from the junction.
This diode is reverse biased meaning no current will flow.

The Diode The semi-conductor phenomena:

The Diode The semi-conductor phenomena Consider now applying a positive voltage to the anode and a negative voltage to the cathode.
The electrons are forced to the junction.
This diode is forward biased meaning current will flow.

The Diode:

The Diode Set up the illustrated circuit on the proto board.
Note the cathode (banded end) of the diode.
The 330 ohm resistor in the circuit is a current limiting resistor (to avoid excessive diode current). 330

The Diode:

The Diode Use the same circuit, but reverse the diode.
Measure and record the current.

The Diode:

The Diode Build the illustrated circuit.
Measure the voltage drop across the forward biased diode.

The Diodewith AC Current:

The Diode with AC Current If AC is applied to a diode:
During one half of the cycle the diode is forward biased and current flows.
During the other half of the cycle, the diode is reversed biased and current stops.
This is the process of rectification, allowing current to flow in only one direction.
This is used to convert AC into pulsating DC.

The Diodewith AC Current:

The Diode with AC Current Input AC Voltage Output Pulsed DC Voltage Diode conducts Diode off

The Light Emitting Diode:

The Light Emitting Diode In normal diodes, when electrons combine with holes current flows and heat is produced.
With some materials, when electrons combine with holes, photons of light are emitted, this forms an LED.
LEDs are generally used as indicators though they have the same properties as a regular diode.

The Light Emitting Diode:

The Light Emitting Diode Build the illustrated circuit on the proto board.
The longer LED lead is the anode (positive end).
Observe the diode response
Reverse the LED and observe what happens.
The current limiting resistor not only limits the current but also controls LED brightness. 330

Zener Diode:

Zener Diode A Zener diode is designed through appropriate doping so that it conducts at a predetermined reverse voltage.
The diode begins to conduct and then maintains that predetermined voltage
The over-voltage and associated current must be dissipated by the diode as heat 9V 4.7V

The Transistor (Electronic Valves):

The Transistor (Electronic Valves) How they works, an inside look
Basic types
NPN
PNP
The basic transistor circuits
Switch
Amplifier

The Transistor:

The Transistor base collector emitter

The Transistor:

The Transistor The base-emitter current controls the collector-base current

The Transistor:

The Transistor

The Transistor:

The Transistor There are two basic types of transistors depending of the arrangement of the material.
PNP
NPN
An easy phrase to help remember the appropriate symbol is to look at the arrow.
PNP – pointing in proudly.
NPN – not pointing in.
The only operational difference is the source polarity. PNP NPN

The Transistor Switch:

The Transistor Switch During the next two activities you will build a transistor switch and a transistor amplifier.
The pin out of the 2N3904 transistor is indicated here.
C B E

The Transistor Switch:

The Transistor Switch Build the circuit on the proto board.
Use hook up wire to serve as “switches” to connect the current to the transistor base.
What happens when you first apply power when the base is left floating (not connected)? 9-volt

The Transistor Switch:

The Transistor Switch Make the illustrated adjustment to the circuit.
Connect one end of some hook-up wire to the positive side of the 9 volt battery.
Touch the other end (supply 9 volts) to the resistor in the base line and observe what happens.

The Transistor Switch:

The Transistor Switch Now replace the hook-up wire connection with a connection to a 1.5 volt battery as shown.
What happens when +1.5 volts is applied to the base?
What happens when the battery is reversed and –1.5 volts is applied to the base?

The Transistor Switch:

The Transistor Switch When does the transistor start to turn on?
Build up the illustrated circuit with the variable resistor in the base circuit to find out.

Putting It All Together:

Putting It All Together Simple construction project

Conclusion:

Conclusion Not really - your journey to understand basic electronics has just begun.
This course was intended to introduce you to some concepts and help you become knowledgeable in others.

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By: pinicpican (76 month(s) ago)

nice presentation love it