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Personal Security:

Personal Security Security Tips for Home Internet Users

Securing your home computer:

Securing your home computer Accessing the Internet from home Convenient Abundance of information Exposes your computer Can be costly or damaging


Overview Internet access Why Should I be concerned with Security What are the most common vulnerabilities What security tools are available Where can I find more information


Internet Complex system of attached networks Designed to distribute data geographically at high speeds in a short period of time Data is distributed in a variety of formats Examples: PDF, JPEG, MOV, MP3, Text Information is stored or viewed locally on your computer


Broadband High speed access to the home user Types DSL Cable Modem


DSL Digital Subscriber Line Typically ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Offers dedicated bandwidth Speed 384 kbps downstream 128 kbps upstream Up to 1.5 Mbps down 800 kbps up Varies depending on service level and distance from CO (Central Office) Maximum distance varies 14000 – 17500 ft

DSL Configuration:

DSL Configuration DSL Modem DSL Splitter and Filters DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer ISP Internet Service Provider

Cable Modem:

Cable Modem Shared bandwidth Speed per channel 27 Mbps shared download 10 Mbps Upload Connects to CMTS (Cable Modem Transmission System) at cable company Provides packet filtering, and traffic shaping

What about security?:

What about security? Why should I be concerned? What are the vulnerabilities? What can I do to protect myself? How do I recover from an attack?

Why should I be Concerned:

Why should I be Concerned You lose crucial data You spend time and money on recovery You feel violated, helpless and foolish You risk propagating the attack to your peers and others Your peers and others know how foolish you are


Vulnerabilities Viruses Hacks Data Capturing Lack of contingency planning


Virus 60,000 Variations in circulation Types of Viruses Antivirus Software Best Practices

Types of Viruses:

Types of Viruses Viruses are Segments of code or complete programs that can damage your system or degrade system performance. Trojan Horse Worm Hoax

Trojan Horses:

Trojan Horses A program disguised as having a desired purpose while subversively performing an unwanted action on your system. Often open backdoor access to your system Notorious Trojan Horses Simpson's Backdoor Sub7 BackOrafice NetBus


Worm Self Propagating independent program that adversely affects your computer performance or damages your computer Hall of fame Melissa Nimda LoveLetter Anna Kournikova CodeRed SirCam


Hoax An unsubstantiated virus alert intended to cause panic Typically warning of the most damaging or dangerous virus Examples BudweiserFrogs A virtual card for you !0000 – Stop mass mailings Wobbler Win a holiday

Best Practice: Virus prevention:

Best Practice: Virus prevention Always verify your antivirus software is running and Update your antivirus software

Best Practice: Virus prevention 2:

Best Practice: Virus prevention 2 When receiving email do not open attachments unless you are expecting them Take virus alerts seriously Sources of alerts Institutional Notification News Media alerts Word of mouth

Virus recovery:

Virus recovery Use antivirus software and tools to clean system Find manual steps for virus removal Reinstall your system from scratch


Hacks Hacking What is hacking How does hacking happen Types of attacks Prevention methods


Hacking Gaining unauthorized access to computer systems for malicious purposes

How Hacking Happens:

How Hacking Happens System information is collected Footprinting Scanning Probing Enumeration Software vulnerabilities are exploited System passwords are guessed or not employed

Types of Attacks:

Types of Attacks Interference Interception Impersonation


Interference Attacks that render objects or services unusable Denial of service Distributed Denial of service System alteration


Interception Captures Data through monitoring or redirection Monitoring Wire taps Network Monitoring Redirection Alteration of DNS servers Man in the middle


Impersonation When the attacker assumes the identity of a trusted source Spoof attacks Using the IP source address of a trusted source computer Password attacks Password enumeration

Prevention Methods:

Prevention Methods Know your system Tools to help protect your system Watch for and apply security patches Contingency planning

Know your system:

Know your system Inventory your system Baseline system and network performance Identify vulnerabilities

Inventory your system:

Inventory your system Software Inventory Running Software File and printer sharing Startup Software Installed Software Software Keys Software Licensing Hardware Installed components Vendor specific device drivers

Inventory Tools:

Inventory Tools Microsoft System Information 98 Manage Computer System summary Windows NT Diagnostics

Inventory Tools 2:

Inventory Tools 2 Belarc Advisor

System Baseline:

System Baseline Task manager Memory Utilization Process Utilization Performance monitor Log low use system state Log high use system state

Network Baseline:

Network Baseline Check Internet Bandwidth speed McAfee Speedometer Ftp Large Files Hash Download Statistics

Network Baseline 2:

Network Baseline 2 Use traceroute Check TTL stats Use performance monitor to check utilization Network Utilization

Identify Vulnerablilities:

Identify Vulnerablilities Filesharing Opens access to your files remotely Should be turned off if not used Protected with security device and used with complex passwords Web Browsing Personal information is accessible via cookie files ActiveX components can launch Visual Basic Application components included in Microsoft Office Disable ActiveX components unless necessary

Security Boundries:

Security Boundries Personal Computer Local Network Security Internet Security

Internet Protocol (IP):

Internet Protocol (IP) Address your computer on the network and where your computer can be reached 32 Bit numeric device address. Dotted Decimal Notation Ex: Consists of network and host address. Determined by subnet mask Network Host

Network Security:

Network Security Dynamic Addressing IP address changes over scheduled time Private Addressing Reserved address range by IANA Encryption


Encryption Method of repackaging data into cyphertext in order to keep observers from viewing data and preserve data integrity SSL – Secure Sockets Layer Encrypts Communication between web browsers and web servers over the internet Uses Public and private key exchange VPN – Virtual Private Networking Secure Tunnel Key Encryption Symmetric Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms SHA – Secure Hashing Algorithm DES – Data Encryption Standard

What your ISP does for you:

What your ISP does for you Private addressing Dynamic addressing Email virus scanning

Security Tools:

Security Tools Routers Proxy Servers Firewalls Application Circuit Switching Scanners


Routers ACL Filter packets Deny or Allow Destination or Source Separate Networks Gateway Private Network

Proxy Server:

Proxy Server Resides between web sites and web browser Takes Request from client Issues request to web server Caches web content locally Improves network performance


Firewalls Separates untrusted external network with trusted internal network. Types of Firewalling Personal Firewall Network Firewall

Types of Firewalling:

Types of Firewalling ACL – Access Control Lists Filters Packets Application Firewalling Verifies command legitimacy Can be performance intensive Proxying Circuit Switching Allows data sessions by request

Personal Firewall:

Personal Firewall Installed on local Computer Rules Based Alerts to system intrusion Accounting Logs events for network forensics Risky can affect stability of your computer Personal firewalls replace operating system kernel components and can conflict with other applications Vendors Sygate Personal Firewall – Black Ice Defender – McAfee Personal Firewall – Norton Personal Firewall – Zone Alarm –

Network Firewalls:

Network Firewalls DSL Cable Routers Filter Packets Separates Network Uses Private Addressing Vendors Linksys DSL/Cable Router Dlink Home Gateway Internet Sharing and Firewall Proxim – Netline Gateway SMC Barricade

Port Scanners:

Port Scanners Scans IP Port numbers for available services Gibson Research Center


Contingency Backup your data Often Use Rotation schedule Store software, license and key information in a safe convenient place. Software includes device drivers, application software, and operating system

Who can I turn to?:

Who can I turn to? System Administration Networking Security Carnegie Mellon - Computer Emergency Response Center FBI – Internet Fraud Complaint Center


Links Broadband Antivirus System Inventory Personal Firewalls

Links 2:

Links 2 Network Firewalls/Routers System and Port Scanners Agencies Report abuse to any ISP. Ex This Presentation

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