Production Technology for oil & Gas

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Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Dr. H. Kwame Afaglo (PhD, BSc) (2009)

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Pre-production activities Surveying and geological testing for commercial viability of exploration. Drilling techniques Straight hole drilling Directional and Horizontal drilling Air and Foam drilling Coil-Tube drilling (CTD)

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Extracts Oil Gas Salt Water Post production treatment and storage. 5. Waste Management. Well abandonment.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Pre-production activities With our increasing and inevitable dependence on energy vis-à-vis the interesting price hikes of oil and gas, explorers are developing advanced techniques: - in mining existing wells, - searching for new fields, - seeking for alternative fuel, with little concern for the health of the planet earth and a balance in the ecosystem.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) 1a. Surveying and geological testing for commercial viability of exploration. Because oil and gas exploration is capital, time and effort intensive, to avoid wasting start-up capital, scientific investigations are carried out on the suspected prospecting site. A combination of seismic and geological tests are carried out to identify;

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) – illustration of seismology, curtsey Schlumber 2005 : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) – illustration of seismology, curtsey Schlumber 2005

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) – Illustration of seismology on offshore – curtsey Schlumber Ltd 2005 : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) – Illustration of seismology on offshore – curtsey Schlumber Ltd 2005

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) -i. the presence of hydrocarbons, -ii. commercial viability of hydrocarbons, -iii. the best location to drill the hydrocarbons. Exploration depends on results of i and ii. If the results indicates i and ii above as positive, then drilling can begin with reference to iii provided an agreement is reached between the site (onshore or offshore) owner and exploration firm(s). However if i is positive and ii is negative, there is no deal, the same no deal response if i is negative.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Drilling techniques Once hydrocarbon deposits are located at a geo-specific location, well logging starts. The two (2) most common logging are; Sample logging – examining and recording the rock properties of the well, i.e. rock layers, porosity etc. Wireline logging – introducing a device into the well to find out the electrical, acoustic and radiological properties of the rocks, in other to establish the suitable fluid or drill mud to be used.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Wellbore is drilled per the rotary drilling. Here drillpipes (steel pipes) are lower into the depository with the drill bite cutting through the rock layers. During drilling the circulating system pumps drilling mud or fluid down the wellbore to cool the drill bite that subsequently collects rock chips along, which exits through holes in the drill bite.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Drill mud or fluid could be a mixture of: - water - brine (KCl, NaCl) - hydro gel - diesel oil - bentonite clay - barium sulphate Please keep in mind that these chemicals when in contact with drinking water table, it pollutes the water.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Also do recall the drillpipe on its way beneath meets drinking water, then salt, other minerals and hydrocarbons (gas and then oil). Further that the difference between onshore and offshore drilling is, drillpipes in the later first go through water column before hitting the sea or lake bed.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) There are various techniques employed in the drilling of hydrocarbons and one of the common features being the drillpipes diameter gets smaller as the pipes borrow further down. In other words, the width of the drillpipes is widest at the top (platform) with the narrowest in the depository. This contributes to the much needed pressure to suck the flow of mineral from source upwards.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) The scientific principles behind suction of oil and gas from wellbore is this simple. Whiles the drillpipe is in the oil depository: if the pressure in the drillpipe is lower than that of the rock (mineral deposit), then the mineral (oil and gas) would flow from rock into the drillpipe faster and with ease. ii. On the other hand, if the pressure in the drillpipe is higher than rock’s, then an additive must be pump into the rock to cause the flow of oil and gas into the drillpipe.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) A smaller diameter casing is further introduced after an earlier larger diameter casing is used to protect the well walls from leakage. The space in-between the two casings is filled with cement whipstock as additional protection from collapse of wellbore. The drill head is then lowered through the well for peculation until target depository is reached.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Please watch this short documentary. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2D6qbdcoMI&NR=1

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) 2a. Drilling technique – Straight hole drilling Here the wellbore is vertical and deviates no more than 5 degrees from the starting point and drilling platform. This is also called the conventional drilling technique or overbalanced drilling. A major weakness of straight hole drilling is it encourages several wellbores to be drilled thereby causing unnecessary ecological damage.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) 2b. Directional & Horizontal drilling Directional or slant drilling is one in which the wellbore significantly bends off the vertical to the oil and gas depository. This mostly occurs offshore and when it is not possible to tap mineral directly over the target location. That of the Horizontal drilling is one in which there is shape turn (900) from the vertical and into the depository.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) 2c. Air & Foam drilling When air replaces drilling mud in the circulatory system then it is known as Air drilling. The downside of air drilling is the possibility of air mixing up with gas during the perforation of the drill bite to form an unwanted complex compound.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Foam drilling is one in which foam (detergents, air and some water) replaces the drilling mud in the circulatory system of the drill bite. 2d. Coil-Tube drilling This techniques employs chemicals pumped through the coil of which forces the hydrocarbons up the drillpipe per horizontal drilling. This techniques is noted to enhance extraction of oil and gas from previously declared ‘depleted well’ or new wellbores.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Underbalanced drilling (UBD) has to do with developing branches of a single wellbore of either convectional or horizontal drilling. Here CTD is used to collect more mineral (oil and gas). Window mill is the tool used to create the branches. One of the advantages of the UBD is its ability to access marginal and bypass pockets of oil and gas.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) When target zone is reached the drillpipes are filled with pressurized brine or additives that force opens fractures in the rock to allow oil and gas to flow through drillpipes for onward collection and storage on platform, this process is known as fracturing or ‘frac’.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Kindly watch this short video on ‘frac’. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gvxFBvHRUY&NR=1

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) 3. Extracts Oil b) Gas c) salt d) Drinking water e) Other minerals e.g. radioactive substances and H2S. In the process of mining oil and gas all the above listed minerals are also extracted. Sadly enough, energy firms are only interested in oil and in some economies they allow the gas not to only waste but pollute the environment.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Salt and water are said to be recycled as part of the drilling mud, but with subsequent use they lose their salinity and are disposed off. Drinking water from water table is contaminated in the process of extracting oil per use of additives (chemicals), gel etc. Other minerals, say radioactive substances mostly form part of the waste to be disposed. The odour from Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as rotten egg which is uncomfortable to live in.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Pulse for two (2) minutes and ponder over these questions. Is ‘frac’ causing problems for the water bodies in the Nigerian water enclave? Are they laws in Nigeria protecting drinking water from contamination from oil drilling? Are the oil exploring firms leaving acceptable carbon footprints within their area of operations? Is integrated minerals extraction (extraction of oil & gas, salt, drinking water and other valuable minerals) possible? Is there a balance between economic gains and ecology ?

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Post production treatment and storage Extracts flow into wellhead(s) which are on platform and through flowline into separator. There could be two (2) or three (3) separators depending on composition of extract, say oil is normally accompanied with gas, then water and salt. It is common practice that some volatile gas extracts (methane, benzene, toluene etc.) are released into the atmosphere.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Oil from separator goes through another flowline and into stock tanks for tankers to transport for refinery.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) 5. Waste management The three (3) main categories of waste produced during oil and gas exploration are: Drilling mud and rock chips. Produced water. Other waste. Drilling mud and rock chips – as earlier mentioned drilling mud is made of water, brine and chemicals when pump into wellbore it exists through the drillhead with rock chips. This is said to be recycled,

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) but after repeated use, it is bagged and handed over to the designated government appointed disposing unit for burial in landfills or pits. Depending on the chemical composition of the drill mud and rock chips it could be used to tar roads. Produced water – The water used in the extraction process is contaminated with hydrocarbons and additives, hence its disposal

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) must be under the supervision of the government approved body (e.g. Environmental Protection Agency). Offshore drilling dispose of its produced water into the sea or lake of production. Then, onshore produced water is pumped into the soil. There is an ongoing research into the possibility of treating and using the produced water in agriculture and domestic.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Other waste – as sand and traces of other minerals and gas though in small quantities need noting. Earlier mention gases as methane, benzene and toluene are released into the atmosphere. Sand, chips etc are shovelled, bagged and buried in landfills. Bioremediation could be considered for disposed drilling mud and rock chips, by subjecting it to biological treatment and new product used as compost for agriculture.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Well abandonment The job is incomplete if there is no plan to properly cover a wellbore in cases as: - Initial research and logging of wellbore identifies hydrocarbons not in commercial quantity. - After production operations with depleted hydrocarbons in well. In other to avoid blowout, the general practice of plugging a wellbore is mandatory.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Plugs must be placed over all unwanted hydrocarbon outlets, be it within wellbore or above ground or on platform, it must be tested and proven to be effectively sealed. Cement plugs be placed at bridges (aquifer) over casings for within wellbore whiles ensuring the cement does not drop to the bottom of the well.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) On ground level of wellbore, cement whipstock is used to plug all casings and a metal plate with identification inscriptions of well abandoned be placed on top. Then a visible notice of well abandonment is placed within immediate environment of the plug.

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) References Kehmail (2008) Hydraulic fracturing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gvxFBvHRUY&NR=1 [Accessed 15 June 2009] Pahlawanaku (2007) UnderBalanced Drilling http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H2D6qbdcoMI&NR=1 [Accessed 15 June 2009] Williams, T. et al (2001) Sound Coiled-Tubing Drilling Practices, Final Report Houston, Texas. U.S. Department of Energy

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) : 

Production Technology for Other Disciplines (Oil & Gas) Thank you

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