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Sensory Evaluation & Peach Fruit Quality S. Predieri IBIMET-CNR-BO, Bologna, Italy P.Ragazzini, R.Rondelli Link Associati-Agri 2000 Bologna, Italy

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“Quality is a human construct comprising many properties or characteristics, including sensory properties, nutritive values, chemical constituents, functional properties, and defects.” Abbott, 1999 Peach Quality should be evaluated on the basis of the specific and transitory use of the product by the different users: the grower, the packing house and storage workers and managers, the retailer, and, finally, the Consumer. Fruit is alive! It changes with time and due to interactions with the enviroment. Furthermore, it has an intrinsic, unavoidable variability. Eating is the end point of the product - all previous activities are aimed to present PEACH FRUIT the consumer in the best condition possible at that very point.

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Quality Consumers point of view: I Make the initial purchase based on visual attributes II Repeat sales on the basis of eating satisfaction Purchase decision: the appearance (visible quality) of fruit is a primary criterion. Insights of Quality encouraging purchase need to provide the means to define and evaluate parameters that will result in effective marketing/placement choices (destination market, price); Eating quality: “flavor” depends on a number physical-chemical factors influencing perception. All these factors are subjected to consistent changes toward ripening* Insights of Quality yielding consumer satisfaction should consider the assessors’ sensorial evaluation and should be aimed to find correlations with measurable physical-chemical data.

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Fruits and Concepts (From the interwievs of 430 persons at the natural food Fair “SANA”) (SAS System, Multiple Correspondence Analysis)

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Sensorial impact of fruits

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Sensory evaluation

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Firmness | _________________________________________ | Juiciness | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Acidity | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | min Max ____ SCHEDA ANALISI SENSORIALE Pesche data ___________ | _______________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Aroma | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Sourness | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | min Max ____ | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Sweetness | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Texture | _________________________________________ | | _______________________________________ | Astringency | _________________________________________ | min Max ____ ASSESSOR ____________ date ___________ Sample Overall Liking |______________________________________|___ Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) Panel is composed of 12-15 selected and trained assessors. Attributes are assessed on a 10-cm line scale and quantified measuring the location of the mark from the origin (Dever et al., 1996).

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Consumer TEST

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Firmness | _________________________________________ | Juiciness | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Acidity | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | min Max ____ data ___________ | _______________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Aroma | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Sourness | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | min Max ____ | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Sweetness | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | | _________________________________________ | Texture | _________________________________________ | | _______________________________________ | Astringency | _________________________________________ | min Max ____ ASSESSOR ____________ date ___________ Sample Overall Liking |______________________________________|___ TRAINED ASSESSORS QDA

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Big Top Caldesi 2000 Royal Gem Silver Rome YP WP WN YN

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Big Top Royal Gem Silver Rome Caldesi 2000 R2=0.07 n.s. R2=0.22 n.s. R2=0.36 **. R2=0.02 n.s. R2=0.01 n.s.

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Big Top Royal Gem Silver Rome Caldesi 2000 R2=0.49 ** R2=0.63 ** R2=0.54 ** R2=0.22 n.s. R2=0.62 **

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Identify cultivar-specific sensorial traits affecting peach Quality and consumer acceptance Identify and Weight key production-distribution triggers determining peach fruit Quality Cultivar Production techniques Production areas Harvest date Postharvest: Conditioning, Storage…. ………………………. Find relationships between sensorial and physical-chemical analysis (non-destructive) Aims of sensorial approach

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THANK YOU

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