Problems in Group 3

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In group 3 there are ambiguos definition that: do not clearly define if fuel approach estimates are inclusive of all the emissions do not clearly states that fuel consumption must not be counted in group 1 (possible double counting) make confusion, in some cases, with process emissions (completly separated from combustion) Problems in Group 3 - Combustion in the Manufacturing Industry

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The following Table contains fuel related emission factors based on CORINAIR90 data in [g/GJ]. Technique related emission factors, mostly given in other units (e.g. g/Mg charged), are listed in footnotes. In case of using production statistics the specific energy consumption (e.g. GJ/Mg product) has to be taken into account, which is process and country specific. At this stage no data for the definition of appropriate conversion factors are available [in some cases are available !]. It is assumed, that emission factors cited within the table are related to combustion sources; other process emissions are not covered “quoted from the guidebook” Methodology indicated in Group 3

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Example: B323 Blast Furnaces Cowpers Contains process emissions? Are the same EF ? Are the same EF ? From the GB The blast furnace operates as a countercurrent process. Iron ore sinter and size-graded iron ore, coke and limestone are charged as necessary into the top of the furnace. (…) Blast furnace gas (off-gas) released at the top of the furnace is collected and is used as fuel for the cowpers. (…) CO2 originates from the complete oxidation of carbon in the blast furnace.

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Examples: B323 Blast Furnaces Cowpers From the GB: Within CORINAIR90 a value for the specific energy consumption of 13 GJ/Mg product has been reported. Clinker ? Cement ?

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B323 Paper mill industry (Drying Processes) After a beating process paper pulp is introduced into the paper mill in concentrations of about 1 %. Mineral pigments or fillers are added to improve the brightness, opacity, and surface smoothness. (…) The final drying process of the sheets consists in passing the sheets over a series of steamheated cylinders (comment: no contact of flue gas with product) Releases to air that are not related to energy generation are (BREF European Commission, 2001) mainly volatile organic compounds (VOC). This emission is usually of minor importance “quoted from the guidebook”

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B323 Blast Furnaces Cowpers B324 Plaster Furnaces B332 Reheating Furnaces Steel and Iron B333 Grey Iron Foundries B334 Primary Lead Production B335 Primary Zinc Production B336 Primary Copper Production B339 Secondary Copper Production List of “ambiguos” activities B3310 Secondary Aluminium Production B3311 Cement B3312 Lime B3314 Glass Production B3318 Mineral Wool B3319 Bricks And Tiles B3320 Fine Ceramics Materials B3321 Paper-mill Industry (Drying Processes) B3322 Alumina Production

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in each case where we have boilers or heaters in which the combustion is not affected by the process we are in sector 0301 Combustion in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines; fuel consumption must be allocated to 0301 if the fuel is in contact with the products (steel, cement, ...) we have combustion processes with contact (0303 Processes with contact); the emissions factors must be preferably expressed in function of output of the process (g/Mg steel, g/Mg cement, ...) and can be different for different fuel used; emissions factor in function of fuels burned can be included in the chapter but only as references; fuel consumption must not be allocated to 0301 Possible solutions (1)

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if the exhaust gases of boilers and heaters are in contact with the products (for examples sludge drying, ...) we have combustion processes with contact (0303 Processes with contact); the emissions factors must be preferably expressed in function of output of the process (g/Mg steel, g/Mg cement, ...) and can be different for different fuel used; emissions factor in function of fuels used can be included in the chapter but only as references; fuel consumption must not be allocated to 0301 if the watery vapours are in contact with the products (for examples 030321 Paper-mill industry (drying processes): emissions for vapour production must be allocated in the sector 0301 Combustion in boilers, gas turbines and stationary engines; emission from the process (0303 Processes with contact ?): the emissions factors must be preferably expressed in function of output of the process (g/Mg steel, g/Mg cement, ...) Possible solutions (2)

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