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Russia Media between the West and the East: 

Russia Media between the West and the East Professor Elena Vartanova Faculty of Journalism Moscow State University/ Aleksander Institute, Helsinki University

Basic Theoretical Frameworks: 

Basic Theoretical Frameworks Authoritarian Theory: journalism as a political instrument of elites Leninist Theory: media as collective agitator (education + political enlightenment), propagandist (common ideology and culture), organizator (mobilization) Dissident Approaches: media as a free voice of intellectuals (intelligentsia), alternative arts (rock music, chansons, elitist cinema)

The Soviet Media Theory : 

The Soviet Media Theory Normative character: media professionals have to be Communist party affiliated, people’s oriented, ethical truthful and educating News and timeliness reporting: of minor importance compared to feature polemic genres Publicistics (political essays writing): at the core of journalists’ activity A ‘must’ for journalists: an active citizen’s stand

Media Theories after 1985: 

Media Theories after 1985 Glasnost Public Sphere Open Society Political Economy / Media Political Capital Information / Network Society Theory of Dual Transition Globalization

Libertarian Theory and Glasnost: 

Libertarian Theory and Glasnost Western Approach: ‘Glasnost as the process of systematically, continuously, and completely informing people on all spheres of life both in the USSR and abroad, except for information constituting state of other legally-protected secrets or violating the generally excepted societal moral and ethical norms. It is an instrument for the leadership in carrying through political reforms.’ Russian view: adaptation of administrative-bureaucratic model to Western ideal of free and open society liberation of media ‘from the top down’ Authors: Nordenstreng, Paasilinna, Yassen Zassoursky

Public Sphere: Who Responsible to Whom?: 

Public Sphere: Who Responsible to Whom? Habermas public sphere as a forum for public debates Russian approach: Public sphere for discussions between the power and citizens Concept of the State Information Policy: Forth Power at the service of the State Media for Dialog between the Power and Citizens Information Security

Popper’s Open Society: 

Popper’s Open Society Glasnost (lack of censorship) as a foundation of Russian open society Open access to information and mass media Media accountability to the public prior to media accountability to the State Tolerance in Media

Political Economy: Media Political Capital: 

Political Economy: Media Political Capital Western approach Balkanization of media: heavy state control, high degree of mass media partisanship, + integration of TV and illegal business through advertising for corruption Russia view media-political capital as an institute of corruption, media not a business, but a source of political influence + integration between media and political elites, no consolidation and shared professional ethics among media professionals

Information or Network Society: 

Information or Network Society Western Theories informational society based on network structures which grow from capitalism + economic and social flexibility Russian approach applicability of the network society concept to Russian communication habits and media uses, but only to the most advanced part of Russian society – fragments, fragmented globalization networks in Russian social and everyday life digital divide as a form of modern inequality striving from the complex of universal (socio-economic, geographical) and individual (educational, cultural, personal, etc.) reasons

Theory of Dual Transition: 

Theory of Dual Transition Technological Transition Transition in Legislation Social Transition Transition of Life Styles and Values Professional Change

Globalization: 

Globalization Western concepts: Glonationalization through adaptation of Western formats (program genres, structure of TV programming, entertainization); absorbing global elements and transforming them into national Russian approach in terms of economy Russian commercial media system falls under general market laws: regionalization of the press markets tabloidization, growing importance of national TV in media-politics relationship Russian media have inherited a paternalistic pattern of relationship (decision-making Father – obedient Child)

Different Types of Media Models: 

Different Types of Media Models Libertarian Social responsibility Authoritarian Soviet propagandistic Siebert, Schramm, Peterson (1956) Liberal Democratic Corporatist Polarized Hallin D., Mancini P. (2004)

Continuum of Post-Soviet: Variety of Media Models: 

Continuum of Post-Soviet: Variety of Media Models EU-oriented (Baltic states) Eurasian etatist (Russia, Ukraine) Eurasian paternalistic (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Byelorussia) Eurasian depressive (Moldova, Caucasus region)

‘Eurasian’ media model: Basic Components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Basic Components Anglo-American Legislation (philosophy and principles) created in a parliamentary way Market laws introduced into the media industry (profit-driven market activity, role of advertising, growing importance of commercial motives in content strategies of media), trends of conglomeration and concentration Role of NGOs, journalists and representative of audience in forming media policy Media as an element of culture and education (enlightening role of media, audience expectations) constructing the public sphere Role of technology as a driving force for media policy and a liberating force for audiences in their relations with media Standards of objective journalism and attention to professional ethics Rise of professional regulation, strive for professional corporativism Asian Implementation of legislation by state-market complex having strong informal control and intervention in the media Lack of transparence in market activities of media companies (closed ownership data and balance sheets), elements of bribery and corruption among journalists (concealed advertising), suppressed commercial motives in activities of many media enterprises Dominant role of state agencies in shaping media policy (a notion of state media policy) Instrumental (service) use of media by ‘state-market complex’/power elites/clans/, evident media clientelism State-media relations: combination of repression and conciliatory measures (strong unofficial control) Partisan (often informal and hidden) connections of journalists to power elites Stimulation of self-regulation ‘top-down’

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components Anglo-American Philosophy and principles of media legislation created in a parliamentary way Asian Implementation of legislation by state-market complex having strong informal control and intervention in the media

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components Anglo-American Market laws introduced into the media industry (profit-driven market activity, role of advertising, growing importance of commercial motives in content strategies of media), trends of conglomeration and concentration Asian Lack of transparence in market activities of media companies (closed ownership data and balance sheets), elements of bribery and corruption among journalists (concealed advertising), suppressed commercial motives in activities of many media enterprises

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components Anglo-American Role of NGOs, journalists and representative of audience in forming media policy Asian Dominant role of state agencies in shaping media policy (a notion of state media policy)

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components Anglo-American Media as an element of culture and education (enlightening role of media, audience expectations) constructing the public sphere + media (formal) independence in agenda setting and framing the reality Asian Instrumental (service) use of media by ‘state-market complex’/power elites/clans/ + evident media clientelism + State-media relations: combination of repression and conciliatory measures (strong unofficial control)

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components Anglo-American Standards of objective journalism and attention to professional ethics + rise of professional regulation, strive for professional corporativism Asian Partisan (often informal and hidden) connections of journalists to power elites + stimulation of self-regulation ‘top-down’

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components: 

‘Eurasian’ media model: Comparison of components Anglo-American Role of technology as a driving force for media policy and a liberating force for audiences in their relations with media + market as a regulator Asian Role of technology as a liberating force for audiences in their relations with media + state as a regulator + problems of information inequality

The Russian Mass Media Law: 

The Russian Mass Media Law Adopted in 1991 Creation of new legal environment Influenced by Anglo-American watchdog philosophy Basic points The impermissibility of censorship The right to create privately owned media The independence of editorial bodies and journalists´ collectives

Evolution of Russian Media Model: 

Evolution of Russian Media Model ‘Oligarchization’ (1991-1996) political model: emergence of integrated political-business elite + TV as a political party media regulation model: liberal legislation + strong informal mechanisms for manipulative use of mass media (corruption, personal relations) ‘Balkanization’ (1996-1999) political model: structurization and redistribution of ownership, media regulation model: poor legislative activity (Broadcasting Law) + emergence of industrial regulation + low level of professional self-organization Neo-authoritarianism (2000 - ): political model: reemergence of state bureaucracy + search for national idea media regulation model: renewal of legislation activity (advertising law, regulation for coverage of terrorism, etc.)

Russia: 

Russia Eurasian etatist (Russia, Ukraine): mixed state-market regulation + a certain degree of public interference+state agencies as major media policy makers+low level of respect to the state by citizens+growing distrust to media by audience

The ‘Holy Trinity’ of Post-Soviet Media Regulation: 

The ‘Holy Trinity’ of Post-Soviet Media Regulation The State: legal framework (access to information, coverage of terrorism) + informal pressures (upon information flows, HR) + cooperation with media professionals (how to stimulate self-regulation?) Media Business: lobbying for profits (new editions of Media Law, Advertising Law, introduction of digital TV) + search for market liberalization (non-commercial partnerships in print media distribution), Increasing role of society (=audience): demands for ethical norms in media contents (censorship or self-regulation) + setting up non-commercial priorities (cultural and socially oriented content)

Technology Matters?: 

Technology Matters? Debates on Information society as an agent for the new media policies New understanding of democracy and freedom of speech: the role of users Dual approaches to government regulation: no interference, importance of self-regulation + attempts to control the content Pressures from audiences

Basic Features of Russian Media Policy: 

Basic Features of Russian Media Policy Features of old regulatory models and approaches (strong influence of historical traditions) remain State and political elite keeping the key role Uneasy introduction of market regulation Technology (mainly) and disappointment in media stimulates regulation from the audiences

RMM: Forces of Change : 

RMM: Forces of Change - conflict of paternalistic and authoritarian (old) versus democratic and non-hierarchical (new) political cultures; - diverse and often competing economic forces, - new media technologies, - increasing indentities of audience groups

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