Grammar Book

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Libro de Gramatica:

Libro de Gramatica Por Luis Guimaraes

Present tense:

Present tense -er comer ( to eat ) com o --- com emos com es --- com éis com e --- com en -ar hablar ( to speak ) habl o --- habl amos habl as --- habl áis habl a --- habl an -ir vivir ( to live ) viv o --- viv imos viv es --- viv ís viv e --- viv en

Ser y Estar:

Ser y Estar Ser soy eres es somos sois son Estar estoy estás está estamos estáis están

Gustar and Similar Verbs:

Gustar and Similar Verbs aburrir to bore agradar to please alegrar to gladden apasionar to love apetecer to feel like atraer to attract bastar to be enough caber to fit, to fill convenir to be better for corresponder to be responsible for costar to cost disgustar to disgust doler to hurt encantar to delight extrañar to surprise faltar to be lacking fascinar to fascinate fastidiar to annoy gustar to please hacer falta to be missed importar to matter interesar to interest molestar to bother parecer to appear to be picar to itch preocupar to worry quedar to remain repugnar to disgust sobrar to be left over tocar to be responsible for

Nouns and Articles:

Nouns and Articles Masculine Nouns el chico --- boy el jardín --- garden el libro --- book el miedo --- fear Feminine Nouns la chica --- girl la universidad --- university la revista --- magazine la libertad --- liberty Definite Articles Indefenite Articles Singular Plural Singular Plural Masculine el compa ñero los compañeros un compañero unos compañeros Feminine la compa ñera las compañeras una compañera unas compañeras

Adjectives:

Adjectives Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Masculine roj o roj os inteligent e inteligent es difíci l difíci les Feminine roj a roj as inteligent e inteligent es difíci l difíci les

Preterite vs. imperfect:

Preterite vs. imperfect The preterite of -ar, -er, -ir verbs comprar vender abrir compr é vend í abr í compr aste vend iste abr iste compr ó vend ió abr ió compr amos vend imos abr imos compr asteis vend isteis abr isteis compr aron vend ieron abr ieron The imperfect of -ar, -er, -ir verbs caminar deber abrir camin aba deb ía abr ía camin abas deb ías abr ías camin aba deb ía abr ía camin ábamos deb íamos abr íamos camin abais deb íais abr íais camin aban deb ían abr ían

Subjunctive in Noun Clauses:

Subjunctive in Noun Clauses The Present Tense Subjunctive hablar comer escribir habl e com a escrib a habl es com as escrib as habl e com a escrib a habl emos com amos escrib amos habl éis com áis escrib áis habl en com an escrib an

Commands:

Commands Familiar Commands Infinitive Affirmative Command Negative Command tomar tome Ud. no tome Ud. tomen Uds. no tomen Uds. volver vuelva Ud. no vuelva Ud. vuelvan Uds. no vuelvan Uds. salir salga Ud. no salga Ud. salgan Uds. no salgan Uds.

Object Pronouns:

Object Pronouns Indirect Object Pronouns Direct Object Pronouns me nos me nos te os te os le les lo/la los/las Prepositional Pronouns mi él nosotros/as ellos ti ella vosotros/as ellas Ud. sí Uds. sí

Possessive Adjectives + Pronouns:

Possessive Adjectives + Pronouns Possessive Adjectives short forms (unstressed) long forms (stressed) mi(s) my mio(s)/a(s) my; (of) mine tu(s) your tuyo(s)/a(s) your; (of) yours su(s) your; his; hers; its suyo(s)/a(s) your; (of yours); his; (of) his; hers (of) hers; its; (of) its nuestro(s)/a(s) our nuestro(s)/a(s) our; (of) ours vuestro(s)/a(s) your vuestro(s)/a(s) your; (of) yours su(s) your; their suyo(s)/a(s) their; (of) theirs

Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns:

Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns Demonstrative Pronouns singular plural masculine feminine masculine feminine este esta estos estas this; these ese esa esos esas that; those aquel aquella aquellos aquellas that; those (over there)

Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses:

Subjunctive in Adverbial Clauses Conjunctions that require the Subjunctive a menos que unless en caso (de) que in case antes (de) que before para que so that con tal (de) que provided that sin que without; unless

Por and Para:

Por and Para Expressions with Para no estar para bromas para colmo to be in no mood for jokes to top it all off no ser para tanto para que sepas to not be so important just so you know para siempre forever Expressions with Por por allí/aquí por lo tanto por casualidad por lo visto por ejemplo por más/mucho que por eso por otro lado/otra parte por fin por primera vez por lo general por si acaso por lo menos por supuesto

Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse, Llegar a ser:

Hacerse, Ponerse, Volverse, Llegar a ser The construction ponerse + [adjective] expresses a change in mental, emotional, or physical state that is generally not long-lasting. Volverse + [adjective] expresses a radical mental or psychological change. It often conveys a gradual or irreversible change in character. In English this is often expressed as to have become + [adjective] Hacerse can be followed by a noun or an adjective. It often implies a change that results from the subject’s own efforts, such as changes in profession or social and political status. Llegar a ser may also be followed by a noun or an adjective. It indicates a change over time and does not imply the subject’s voluntary effort. There are often reflexive verb equivalents for ponerse + [adjective]. Note that when used with object pronouns instead of reflexive pronouns, such verbs convey that another person or thing is iomposing a mental, emotional, or physical state on someone else.

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