Concentration of apple and pear juices by nanofiltrationat low pressur

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WEL-COME:

WEL-COME & GOOD AFTERNOON 1

Concentration of apple and pear juices by nanofiltration at low pressures :

Concentration of apple and pear juices by nanofiltration at low pressures Seminar By: Aniruddha Balwan 1 st year M. Tech. (DFE) 2

Nanofiltration (NF) :

Nanofiltration (NF) It is a pressure-driven separation process in which the filtration efficiency depends on steric (sieving) and charge (Donnan) effects. It has properties that are between those of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, and it can separate fine particles (up to 180 mol wt). Promising process for food industry Applications in food industry----- 3

Why nanofiltration?:

Why nanofiltration? Replacing reverse osmosis by NF can improve the efficiency of the process, first, because the high pressure required in reverse osmosis (RO) can damage the juice (Bottino & Capanelli, 1991) and second because the cost of RO is higher. 4

Limitations:

Limitations Limiting flux phenomena (fouling and concentration polarization) can confine its applications. optimum conditions for minimizing fouling during apple juice ultrafiltration included high tangential velocity and low transmembrane pressure. 5

Membranes and filtration plant :

Membranes and filtration plant Two tubular membranes ( AFC80 from PCI Membranes and MPT-34 from Koch Membrane) Two flat-sheet membranes ( Desal-5DK from Osmonics and MPT-34 from Koch Membrane) The filtration area was 226.08 and 122.18 cm 2 for the tubular and flat-sheet membranes, respectively. 6

Properties of membrane used for NF:

Properties of membrane used for NF 7 MEMBRANE WORKING pH MAXIMUM TEMP , ° C MAXIMUM PRESSURE, BAR AFC -80 1.5-10.5 70 60 MPT- 34 0-14 80 50 DESAL -5DK 1-11.5 50 50

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Properties of pear and apple juice concentrates :

Properties of pear and apple juice concentrates 9

Experiments :

Experiments Cleaning of membranes 0.2% HNO 3 , rinsing with water until neutral pH Initial concentration of juices 10 ° brix 12 bar pressure and 30 °C temperature Sugar concentration in permeate and in retentate were measured using a refractometer. AFM and SEM 10

Calculation of the parameters for evaluating the filtration performance :

Calculation of the parameters for evaluating the filtration performance 11 Concentration degree (CD)-is the ratio of final sugar concentration in retentate to initial sugar concentration.

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12 Retention : Is the percentage of a species retained in the feed. C p is permeate concentration C R is the retentate concentration

J=Permeate flux A= membrane area,m2 mP =permeate mass, gm ρP =permeate density, g/lt :

J=Permeate flux A= membrane area,m 2 m P =permeate mass, gm ρ P =permeate density, g/lt 13

Irreversible fouling (IF): :

Irreversible fouling (IF): 14

Results and Discussion-1.tubular:

Results and Discussion-1.tubular 15

Tubular membrane:

Tubular membrane 16

TABLE :

TABLE 17

Concentration with flat sheet membrane:

Concentration with flat sheet membrane 18

AFM characterization:

AFM characterization 19

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Separation skin:

Separation skin 21

Desal-5DK membrane (before & after):

Desal-5DK membrane (before & after) 22

Mean pore size for original and treated membranes obtained from AFM images:

Mean pore size for original and treated membranes obtained from AFM images 23

SEM characterization:

SEM characterization 24

C/S of AFC80 & Desal-5DK membrane after pear juice nanofiltration:

C/S of AFC80 & Desal-5DK membrane after pear juice nanofiltration 25

Results for MPT-34 flat sheet:

Results for MPT-34 flat sheet 26 Concentration degree (%) Retention (%) Permeate flux(LMH) Fructose 1.01 64 2 Pear juice 1.01 75 0.4

Irreversible fouling calculation for tubular and flat-sheet membranes:

Irreversible fouling calculation for tubular and flat-sheet membranes 27

Conclusions:

Conclusions 1. The results show that juice solutions can be concentrated by NF and that Desal-5DK is the membrane tested that gives higher concentrations. 2. AFM analysis is a good tool for characterizing the topology of NF membranes. It also makes it possible to evaluate the deposition of particles onto the membrane surface. 28

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3. Due to the limits of magnification, SEM can only be used to determine membrane thickness. 4. The results indicate that the choice of a NF membrane for concentrating juice should be made after considering the whole set of parameters involved in the process, and not just one e.g. retention or permeate flux. 29

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THANK YOU ! 30

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