Ch11

Views:
 
Category: Entertainment
     
 

Presentation Description

Ch11

Comments

Presentation Transcript

Chapter Overview:

1 Chapter Overview Creating Sites and Subnets Configuring Intersite Replication Troubleshooting Active Directory Replication

Creating Sites and Subnets :

2 Creating Sites and Subnets Replication is an important function of the Active Directory service. All domain controllers must have an identical copy of the Active Directory database. In most cases replication is automatic, but sometimes you must create Active Directory objects needed to manually configure replication.

Configuring Site Settings :

3 Configuring Site Settings To configure a site setting: 1. Create a new site object. 2. Associate a subnet with the site. 3. Connect the sites using site links.

Creating a Site Object :

4 Creating a Site Object In Active Directory, a site is a set of servers that are well connected in terms of speed and cost. Well connected usually means the servers are connected using a local area network (LAN) protocol such as Ethernet or Token Ring. Replication within sites occurs as needed, when changes are made on a domain controller, rather than as scheduled.

Creating a Site Object (Cont.) :

5 Creating a Site Object (Cont.) By default, all domain controllers on an Active Directory network are part of a single site, which is automatically created by Microsoft Windows 2000 when the first domain is created. You can create additional sites when domain controllers are connected by slow or costly links, such as wide area network (WAN) links. Replication between sites occurs only as scheduled.

Creating a Site Object (Cont.) :

6 Creating a Site Object (Cont.) When Active Directory is installed on the first domain controller on the network, Windows 2000 creates the Default-First-Site-Name site object in the Sites container. Site objects do not appear in Active Directory Users And Computers. You use Active Directory Sites And Services to create and manage sites.

The Active Directory Sites And Services Console :

7 The Active Directory Sites And Services Console

The New Object – Site Dialog Box :

8 The New Object – Site Dialog Box

Associating a Subnet Object With a Site :

9 Associating a Subnet Object With a Site Computers on Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)–based Active Directory networks are assigned to sites based on their location in subnets. Subnets group computers in a way that identifies their physical proximity on the network. A site consists of one or more IP subnets. You create subnet objects and associate them with a particular site by using Active Directory Sites And Services.

The New Object – Subnet Dialog Box :

10 The New Object – Subnet Dialog Box

The Properties Dialog Box for a Subnet :

11 The Properties Dialog Box for a Subnet

Creating Site Links :

12 Creating Site Links A site link object and a physical link (such as a WAN connection) are required for replication to occur between two sites. You can configure a site link object to determine when replication between the sites will occur. You can use a single site link object to connect more than one pair of sites. You create site links by using Active Directory Sites And Services.

Creating Site Links (Cont.) :

13 Creating Site Links (Cont.) DEFAULTIPSITELINK is automatically created in the IP container when you install Active Directory on the first domain controller in the site. You can create any additional site links you need.

Replication Protocols :

14 Replication Protocols Site link objects use Internet Protocol (IP) or Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) to establish connections between sites. IP replication Uses remote procedure calls (RPCs) for replication over site links (intersite) and within a site (intrasite) Normally adheres to replication schedules SMTP replication Is used only for intersite replication Typically ignores all schedules

Creating Site Link Objects :

15 Creating Site Link Objects The Inter-Site Transports folder contains the IP folder and the SMTP folder. You create site link objects under the folder for the protocol you want that site link to use.

The Inter-Site Transports Folder in Active Directory Sites And Services :

16 The Inter-Site Transports Folder in Active Directory Sites And Services

The New Object – Site Link Dialog Box :

17 The New Object – Site Link Dialog Box

The Properties Dialog Box for a Site Link Object :

18 The Properties Dialog Box for a Site Link Object

Lesson Summary:

19 Lesson Summary A site is a set of servers that are well connected in terms of speed and cost. Subnet objects identify the computers that belong in a specific site. A site link object and a physical link (such as a WAN connection) are required for replication to occur between two sites. You use Active Directory Sites And Services to create and manage sites, subnets, and site link objects.

Configuring Intersite Replication :

20 Configuring Intersite Replication The WAN technologies that connect sites are represented in Active Directory by site link objects. You can improve site link connectivity by joining overlapping site links into site link bridges or by bridging all of the site links.

Tasks for Configuring Intersite Replication :

21 Tasks for Configuring Intersite Replication 1. Create site links. 2. Configure site link attributes. 3. Create site link bridges. 4. Configure connection objects (optional). 5. Designate a preferred bridgehead server (optional).

Configuring Site Link Attributes :

22 Configuring Site Link Attributes When you configure intersite replication, you should provide the following information for all site links: Site link cost Replication frequency Replication availability

Site Link Cost :

23 Site Link Cost The site link cost assigns a value indicating the relative cost of each available connection used for intersite replication. If you have multiple redundant network connections between multiple sites Create a site link object for each connection Then assign a cost to each site link that reflects that link's relative bandwidth Cost is a measurement of the priority of each site link.

Example Site Link Configuration :

24 Example Site Link Configuration

The Properties Dialog Box for a Site Link Object :

25 The Properties Dialog Box for a Site Link Object

Replication Frequency :

26 Replication Frequency You configure the replication frequency for site links by specifying how many minutes Active Directory should wait before using a connection to check for replication updates. Default interval = 180 minutes (3 hours) Minimum interval = 15 minutes Maximum interval = 10,080 minutes (1 week) You use Active Directory Sites And Services to schedule replication frequency for a site link object.

Replication Availability :

27 Replication Availability You specify when a site link should be available for replication by using Active Directory Sites And Services. Because SMTP ignores schedules, you should not configure site link replication availability on SMTP site links unless The site link uses scheduled connections, or The SMTP queue is not on a schedule, or Information is exchanged directly between servers and not through intermediaries

The Schedule For Dialog Box for a Site Link Object :

28 The Schedule For Dialog Box for a Site Link Object

The Properties Dialog Box for an Intersite Transports Protocol Folder :

29 The Properties Dialog Box for an Intersite Transports Protocol Folder

Creating Site Link Bridges :

30 Creating Site Link Bridges By default, when more than two sites are linked for replication and they all use the same transport, the site links are bridged and transitive . If your IP network is not fully routed, you can turn off the transitive site link feature for the IP transport and configure site link bridges instead. You use Active Directory Sites And Services to create a site link bridge.

The New Object – Site Link Bridge Dialog Box :

31 The New Object – Site Link Bridge Dialog Box

Manually Configuring Connections :

32 Manually Configuring Connections Active Directory automatically creates and deletes the connections it needs for replication under normal conditions. You can manually add or configure connections or force replication over a particular connection, but normally you should allow Active Directory to automatically optimize the replication process. You should use Active Directory Sites And Services to create a connection manually only if you are certain the connection is required, and if you want the connection to persist until you manually remove it.

The Find Domain Controllers Dialog Box :

33 The Find Domain Controllers Dialog Box

Forcing Replication Over a Connection :

34 Forcing Replication Over a Connection

Designating a Preferred Bridgehead Server :

35 Designating a Preferred Bridgehead Server Bridgehead servers are domain controllers that are the contact points for the exchange of replication information between sites. You can specify multiple preferred bridgehead servers, but only one can be the active preferred bridgehead server at any time for a single site. You must specify a preferred bridgehead server if your network uses a firewall to protect a site. Designate your firewall proxy server as the preferred bridgehead server.

Designating a Preferred Bridgehead Server (Cont.) :

36 Designating a Preferred Bridgehead Server (Cont.) Establishing a preferred bridgehead server designates that server as the priority server for information exchange over the protocol that the site link is established for. Normally, the preferred bridgehead server is used as the first choice to receive and send all directory replication traffic. You use Active Directory Sites And Services to designate a preferred bridgehead server.

The Properties Dialog Box for a Server Object :

37 The Properties Dialog Box for a Server Object

Lesson Summary :

38 Lesson Summary Configuring site link cost, replication frequency, and replication availability enables you to control which site links Active Directory should use for replication and when. You can create site link bridges to improve site link connectivity. You can designate a domain controller as a preferred bridgehead server to specify which domain controller should be the preferred recipient of intersite replication. You use Active Directory Sites And Services to perform all of the tasks discussed in this lesson.

Troubleshooting Active Directory Replication :

39 Troubleshooting Active Directory Replication Most Active Directory replication problems that can be fixed with Active Directory Sites And Services involve poor directory information.

Replication Problems :

40 Replication Problems Ineffective replication can result in poor Active Directory performance and network problems, such as new users not being recognized. Replication problems usually result in out-of-date Active Directory information or unavailable domain controllers.

Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios :

41 Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios Symptom: Replication of directory information has stopped. Cause: The sites containing the clients and domain controllers are not connected by site links to domain controllers in other sites on the network. Solution: Create a site link object joining the current site to a site that is connected to the rest of the network's sites.

Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) :

42 Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) Symptom: Replication has slowed but not stopped. Possible cause #1: The intersite replication structure is not as complete as it should be. Possible solution #1: Make sure Active Directory is configured properly. Consider creating a site link bridge or bridging all of the site links.

Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) :

43 Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) Symptom: Replication has slowed but not stopped. (Cont.) Possible cause #2: Current network resources are insufficient to handle the amount of replication traffic. Possible solution #2: There are several possible solutions: Increase available network resources for directory traffic. Decrease the frequency of replication. Configure site link costs. Create site links or site link bridges.

Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) :

44 Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) Symptom: Replication has slowed but not stopped. (Cont.) Possible cause #3: Directory information that is changed on domain controllers at one site is not being updated on domain controllers at other sites in a timely manner because intersite replication is scheduled too infrequently. Possible solution #3: Increase the frequency of replication, and if a site link is restricting replication, increase the time range during which replication can occur on that site link.

Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) :

45 Replication Troubleshooting Scenarios (Cont.) Symptom: Replication has slowed but not stopped. (Cont.) Possible cause #4: Clients are requesting services from a domain controller with a low-bandwidth connection. Possible solution #4: There are several possible solutions: Check for a site that better serves the client's subnet. If a client is isolated from domain controllers, consider creating another site with its own domain controller that includes the client. Install a connection with more bandwidth.

Checking Replication Topology :

46 Checking Replication Topology The Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC) is a process that Considers the cost of connections Checks the availability of domain controllers Checks whether new domain controllers have been added The KCC uses this information to add or remove connection objects to create an efficient replication topology. You use Active Directory Sites And Services to check the replication topology by forcing the KCC to run on a server object.

Lesson Summary :

47 Lesson Summary A complete lack of Active Directory replication can be caused by a lack of site link objects. A slowdown of replication might occur because of incorrectly configured site link objects or from other causes. You can check the replication topology for your network by using Active Directory Sites And Services to force the KCC to run on a server object.

authorStream Live Help