Category: Education

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Basis and Focus : 

Basis and Focus Basis: Principles of cognitive psychology Focus: Role of cognitive processes in learning

Focus : 

Focus The mental processes involved in learning: Observing, categorizing, forming generalizations to make sense of the information provided

Main Assumptions : 

Main Assumptions Learning results from internal mental activity and not from externally imposed stimuli

Slide 5: 

The learner comes with knowledge, skills and related experiences to the learning situation

Role of the Learner : 

Role of the Learner Active participant in the learning process, using various strategies to process and construct their personal understanding of the content to which they are exposed

Piaget, Bloom, Bruner, Ausubel : 

Piaget, Bloom, Bruner, Ausubel Each of these psychologists focused on different cognitive conditions that impact on learning

Jean Piaget : 

Jean Piaget Constructed models of child development and the learning process Identified 4 developmental stages and the cognitive processes associated with each of them

Developmental Stages : 

Developmental Stages Sensory-motor - understands his environment through the basic senses Intuitive /Pre-operational - Thoughts more flexible, memory and imagination begin to play a part in learning, capable of more creativity

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Concrete Operational – Can go beyond the basic information given, but still dependent on concrete material and examples to support reasoning Formal Operational – Abstract reasoning becomes increasingly possible

Accommodation : 

Accommodation Accommodation – The process by which we modify what we already know to take into account the new information

Assimilation : 

Assimilation The process by which new knowledge is changed / modified / merged in our minds to fit into what we already know

Equilibration : 

Equilibration The balance between what is known and what is currently being processed, mastery of the new material

Implications for the Classroom : 

Implications for the Classroom Learning is the process of relating new information with what was previously learnt Learning is cumulative

Implications : 

Implications Learners should be assigned tasks that are age and stage appropriate

Bloom’s Taxonomy : 

Bloom’s Taxonomy Identifies and describes, in hierarchical order, the cognitive processes involved in learning

Implication for Teaching : 

Implication for Teaching Use verbs aligned to the taxonomy to plan lessons that would ensure that learners’ cognitive skills develop from LOTS to HOTS

Revised Taxonomy : 

Revised Taxonomy The original taxonomy has now been revised to make provision for the new knowledge and skills that now exist as a result of the integration of web 2.0 tools in teaching

Original and Revised Taxonomies : 

Original and Revised Taxonomies

Bloom (Rev.) and Web 2.0 : 

Bloom (Rev.) and Web 2.0

Jerome Bruner - Focus : 

Jerome Bruner - Focus Development of conceptual understanding, cognitive skills and learning strategies rather than the acquisition of knowledge

Bruner’s Focus : 

Bruner’s Focus Teaching Approach - Learners should be encouraged to discover solutions via appropriate tasks which require the application of relevant critical thinking skills

Bruner – Modes of Thinking : 

Bruner – Modes of Thinking Extended aspects of Piaget’s theory. He identified three ways in which learners process information

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Enactive Level – learning takes place via direct manipulation of objects and materials

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Iconic Level – Objects are represented by visual images and are recognized for what they represent

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Symbolic Level – Learning can take place using symbols, objects and mental images. Language is used to represent thoughts and experiences

Implications for Teaching : 

Implications for Teaching Providing opportunities for learners to be actively engaged in making sense of the language input, through meaningful tasks

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Providing opportunities for learners to develop the ability to analyze the language, make generalizations about rules, take risks in trying out the language, and to learn from errors

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Catering for interaction of learner with curriculum material and the learning environment Catering for the three modes of thinking (Bruner)

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The Spiral Process: The cumulative nature of learning requires frequent opportunities for reviewing previously learnt material even as new material is introduced.

David Ausubel - Focus : 

David Ausubel - Focus Stressed the importance of active mental participation in meaningful learning tasks Learning must be meaningful to be effective and permanent

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Made a distinction between meaningful learning and rote learning Meaningful Learning – relatable to what one already knows so it can be easily integrated in one’s existing cognitive structure

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Rote Learning – the material to be learnt is not integrated / subsumed into an existing cognitive structure but learnt as isolated pieces of information

Implications for Classroom : 

Implications for Classroom Teacher has to enhance the meaningfulness of new material to increase the chances of its being anchored to what is already known

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New material must be organized to be easily relatable to what is already known New material must be appropriately sequenced to facilitate integration

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Use of advance organizers. These facilitate the learning process by providing ideas to which the new knowledge can be attached

Advance Organizers : 

Advance Organizers Introductory material presented in advance of the new material Information that activates relevant background knowledge

Advance Organizers : 

Advance Organizers Material that orients learners to the subject matter and relates new learning to what is already known Can take the form of textual material, pictures, titles, topic summaries, questions

Attention should be given to: : 

Attention should be given to: The need to organize and structure meaningful learning activities. The requirements of the task must be appropriate to the developmental stage (Piaget, Bruner) and allow for the development of HOTS (Bloom)

Moving from LOTS to HOTS : 

Moving from LOTS to HOTS

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