Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels

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Slide 1: 

The Cardio Vascular System 1 Kendal Lavery

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Objectives Identify the major anatomical features and functions of the circulatory system. Define the structure and function of blood Accurately take and record a pulse 2

Session 1Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels : 

Session 1Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 3

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The Heart is brilliant 35 million beats every year Pumps 3,600 gallons / 14,000 Lts of blood a day Through 60,000 miles of blood vessels Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels B 4

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Where is the heart? B 5

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 6

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels In the thoracic cavity 7

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels In the thoracic cavity Mediasternum 8

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels In the thoracic cavity Mediasternum Cone pointing inferior and left 9

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels In the thoracic cavity Mediasternum Cone pointing inferior and left Attached to the diaphragm 10

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How big is the heart? B 11

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Size of a clenched fist 12

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Size of a clenched fist 12cm long, 9cm wide, 6cm thick 13

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What's it made of Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels B 14

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Pericardium Fibrous Sack with 2 layers and fluid in the middle 15

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Pericardium Fibrous Sack with 2 layers and fluid in the middle Myocardium Specialised muscle cells that carry electrical impulses very quickly 16

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Pericardium Fibrous Sack with 2 layers and fluid in the middle Myocardium Specialised muscle cells that carry electrical impulses very quickly Endocardium Very Smooth Epithelial cells Lines all the cavities 17

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What does it do? Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels ? 18

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It pumps blood Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 19

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 20

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 21 Aorta

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 22 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 23 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 24 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 25 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 26 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 27 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 28 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 29 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 30 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Tricuspid Valve

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 31 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Tricuspid Valve Pulmonary Valve

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 32 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Tricuspid Valve Pulmonary Valve Right Atrium

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 33 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Tricuspid Valve Pulmonary Valve Right Atrium Right Pulmonary Artery

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 34 Aorta Left Pulmonary Artery Left Atrium Aortic Valve Bicuspid/ Mitral Valve Papillary Muscles Left Ventricle Right Ventricle Inferior Vena Cava Tricuspid Valve Pulmonary Valve Right Atrium Right Pulmonary Artery Superior Vena Cava

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 35

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 36 Heart Valves

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Conduction Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 37

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Conduction nerve stimulation around the heart Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 38

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 1 Sinoatrial Node (SA node) In the right Atrial wall Pacemaker cells Electrical activity is propagated throughout the Atria causing contraction 39

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 2 Atrioventricular node (AV node) Found in the Septum 40

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3 Atrioventricular Bundle AKA The Bundle of His The only way for conduction to pass into the Ventricles Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 41

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 4 Right & Left Bundle Braches 42

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 5 Purkinje Fibres Down the septum Up through the Ventricle Myocardium Causing Ventricle contraction P 43

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels ? Impulse travels from the S.A. node to the A.V. node in about 0.05 seconds. Impulse slows down in the A.V. node ( due to small diameter conduction fibres taking 0.1sec From entry in Bundle of His, entire heart depolarises in 0.15 - 0.2 seconds. Intrinsic rates if the S.A. Node fails A.V node = 40 - 50 beats/min. Purkinje Fibres = 20 - 50 beats/min. 44

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Cardiac Cycle Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels ? 45

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Atrial systole 0.1 seconds Ventricular Systole 0.3 seconds Complete Cardiac Diastole 0.4 seconds Cardiac Cycle 0.8 seconds 46

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Blood Vessels Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels ? 47

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Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 48

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Arteries Arterioles Venules Veins Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Same 3 layers Tunica Adventia/Externa = elastic & collagen fibres Tunica Media = Smooth muscle Tunica Intima = Squamous Epithelium 49

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Arteries and Arterioles Veins and Venules Tunica Intima Endothelial cells Tunica Media Tunica Externa or Adventia 50

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Arteries and Arterioles Veins and Venules Tunica Intima Endothelial cells Tunica Media Tunica Externa or Adventia Valve 51

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Venous Return 52

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Venous Return Position (gravity) 53

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Venous Return Position (gravity) Muscular contraction P 54

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Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Venous Return Position (gravity) Muscular contraction Breathing Negative pressure in thorax Positive abdominal pressure 55

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Capillaries Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels Single cell thick Connect Arterioles to Venules Near almost every cell in the body Main function Exchange of nutrients 56

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Cardiac output Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels ? 57

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Cardiac output Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels ? 58

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Cardiac output Cardiac output is the amount of blood leaving the left ventricle in 1 minute Stroke Volume X Heart rate Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels B 59

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Cardiac output Stroke Volume X Heart rate In a healthy adult at rest stroke volume = 70 mls Heart rate = 72 70 mls X 72 = 5040 mls / minute 5 lts / min Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels B 60

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QUIZ TIME Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 61

Session 2Circulatory systems and Blood : 

Session 2Circulatory systems and Blood ? 62

Circulatory systems and Blood : 

Circulatory systems and Blood ? 63

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Systemic Pulmonary Portal Cardiac Circulatory Systems and Blood 64

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Systemic The blood pumped out of the left ventricle is carried by braches of the Aorta around the body, it returns via the Inferior and Superior Vena Cava to the Right Atrium Does not take part in gaseous exchange Circulatory Systems and Blood 65

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Circulatory Systems and Blood Pulmonary Blood from the Right Ventricle goes to the lungs, here Carbon Dioxide is excreted and Oxygen is absorbed, it then returns to the Heart via the Left Atrium. Does not supply the Lung tissue with O2. 66

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Portal Blood from capillary beds In the abdominal part of the digestive system including the Spleen and Pancreas, passes onto the capillary beds in the Liver. Then to the Inferior Vena Cava and the Right Atrium Circulatory Systems and Blood 67

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Circulatory Systems and Blood Coronary Circulation The left and right Coronary Arteries lead from the Aorta immediately after the Aortic Valve. The Left Coronary Artery divides into left Anterior Descending and the Circumflex artery. Blood returns to the right Atrium via the Coronary Sinus 68

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 69 Right Coronary artery supplies Right Ventricle Inferior wall of Left Ventricle Posterior wall of Left Ventricle

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 70 Right Coronary artery supplies Right Ventricle Inferior wall of Left Ventricle Posterior wall of Left Ventricle Left Coronary artery supplies Septal wall of Left Ventricle Anterior wall of Left Ventricle Lateral wall of Left Ventricle Posterior wall of Left Ventricle

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BLOOD Circulatory Systems and Blood 71

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BLOOD Circulatory Systems and Blood Temperature is approx. 38 C. Ph of 7.4. Constitutes 8% of total body weight. 72

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What does it do Circulatory Systems and Blood 73

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What does it do What is the function of Blood? Circulatory Systems and Blood 74

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Function Transportation Regulation Protection Oxygen Homeostasis Clotting Co2 Ph (acidity/alkalinity) Disease Nutrients Hormones Heat Circulatory Systems and Blood 75

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 76

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 77

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 78

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 79

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 80

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 81

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 82

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Circulatory Systems and Blood Red Blood Cells Where do they come from? How long do they live? What shape are they? What are the clinical names for Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets? 83

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Circulatory Systems and Blood 84

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Circulatory Systems and Blood Produced in the bone marrow of long bones and Pelvis They live about 120 days A biconcave disc 85

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Circulatory Systems and Blood Produced in the bone marrow of long bones and Pelvis They live about 120 days A biconcave disc Has the same surface area as a sphere but can get into smaller gaps. Has 280million Haemoglobin molecules each capable of carrying 4 O2 atoms 86

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Circulatory Systems and Blood Produced in the bone marrow of long bones and Pelvis They live about 120 days A biconcave disc RBC = Erythrocytes WBC = Leucocytes Platelets = Thrombocytes 87

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Clotting Circulatory Systems and Blood 88

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Clotting Circulatory Systems and Blood 1.Following damage to a blood vessel, vascular spasm occurs to reduce blood loss 2.Blood platelets congregate at the site of damage and amass to form a platelet plug. 3.Coagulation forms a thread like mesh of Fibrin which is stronger than the platelet plug 89

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Coagulation Involves clotting factors, Calcium ions and inactive enzymes. It is a cascade of reactions in which one clotting factor activates another. Circulatory Systems and Blood 90

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Coagulation Several reactions end in the formation of Prothrombinase (this can be Intrinsic or Extrinsic) Circulatory Systems and Blood 91

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Coagulation Several reactions end in the formation of Prothrombinase (this can be Intrinsic or Extrinsic) 2. Prothrombinase converts Prothrombin (a plasma protein formed in the liver) into Thrombin. Circulatory Systems and Blood 92

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Coagulation Several reactions end in the formation of Prothrombinase (this can be Intrinsic or Extrinsic) 2. Prothrombinase converts Prothrombin (a plasma protein formed in the liver) into Thrombin. 3. Thrombin converts soluble Fibrinogen (another plasma protein formed in the Liver) into insoluble Fibrin Circulatory Systems and Blood 93

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QUIZ TIME Anatomy of the Heart and Vessels 94

Session 3Blood pressure and Pulse : 

Session 3Blood pressure and Pulse ? 95

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What is a pulse Blood pressure and Pulse 96

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What is a pulse A wave of pressure felt in an artery when it pressed against a bone. Blood pressure and Pulse 97

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What is a pulse A wave of pressure felt in an artery when it pressed against a bone. Where can we feel a pulse Blood pressure and Pulse 98

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What is a pulse A wave of pressure felt in an artery when it pressed against a bone. Where can we feel a pulse Carotid, Brachial, Radial, Femoral, Pedis. Blood pressure and Pulse 99

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What is a pulse A wave of pressure felt in an artery when it pressed against a bone. Where can we feel a pulse Carotid, Brachial, Radial, Femoral, Pedis. What does it tell us Blood pressure and Pulse 100

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What is a pulse A wave of pressure felt in an artery when it pressed against a bone. Where can we feel a pulse Carotid, Brachial, Radial, Femoral, Pedis. What does it tell us rate, rhythm, strength Blood pressure and Pulse 101

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Practical Blood pressure and Pulse 102

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Blood pressure and Pulse Paediatric Age Rate < 1 110 - 160 2 - 5 95 - 140 5 - 12 80 - 120 > 12 60 - 100 103

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Blood pressure Define the terms Systolic Diastolic Pulse Pressure Blood pressure and Pulse 104

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Systolic BP - L ventricle contracts Diastolic BP - L ventricle relaxes Pulse Pressure = Systolic - Diastolic 105 Blood pressure and Pulse

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106 Blood pressure and Pulse Vascular resistance

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107 Blood pressure and Pulse Vascular resistance Size of lumen The smaller the lumen the greater the resistance.

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108 Blood pressure and Pulse Vascular resistance Size of lumen The smaller the lumen the greater the resistance. Blood viscosity The higher the ratio of RBC to plasma the higher the resistance (thickness)

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109 Blood pressure and Pulse Vascular resistance Size of lumen The smaller the lumen the greater the resistance. Blood viscosity The higher the ratio of RBC to plasma the higher the resistance (thickness) Total vessel length The longer the vessel the greater the resistance Obese people often have hypertension for this reason. 1 kg of fat = 400miles of additional vessels (Tortora)

Average Blood Pressures : 

Average Blood Pressures 110

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Blood pressure and Pulse Adults the blood volume of an adult can be estimated at 70mls per kilogram of body weight. An adult of 70kg would have 4.9 litres of blood. Pregnancy During the latter half of pregnancy the blood volume increases up to 30 to 50%. Paediatrics A child’s blood volume is higher at 80mls per kg of body weight, but the actual volume is small. 111

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Blood pressure and Pulse 112

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What effects cardiac output? Blood pressure and Pulse 113

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What effects cardiac output? Heart Rate Controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System from the Cardio Vascular centre in the Medulla Oblongata Effected by age, sex, body position, exercise, emotion Blood pressure and Pulse 114

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What effects cardiac output? Heart Rate Controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System from the Cardio Vascular centre in the Medulla Oblongata Effected by age, sex, body position, exercise, emotion Baroreceptors In the aortic arch and carotid arteries send signals to the Medulla when they get stretched. Chemoreceptors In the same areas as Baroreceptors monitor blood levels of O2, Co2 and H+ .and send signals to the Medulla Blood pressure and Pulse 115

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What effects cardiac output? Contractility The degree the heart contracts is again governed by the ANS Blood pressure and Pulse 116

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What effects cardiac output? Pre-Load Blood pressure and Pulse 117

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Pre-Load The greater the stretch on the cardiac muscle fibres prior to contraction the greater the strength of the contraction. Frank-Starling Law Blood pressure and Pulse 118

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Pre-Load The greater the stretch on the cardiac muscle fibres prior to contraction the greater the strength of the contraction. Frank-Starling Law Pre-load is proportional to the volume of blood that fills the Ventricles at the end of Diastole Blood pressure and Pulse 119

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Pre-Load The greater the stretch on the cardiac muscle fibres prior to contraction the greater the strength of the contraction. Frank-Starling Law Pre-load is proportional to the volume of blood that fills the Ventricles at the end of Diastole End-Diastolic Volume (EDV) and Venous Return effect pre-load Blood pressure and Pulse 120

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Blood pressure and Pulse 121

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Blood pressure and Pulse 122

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