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Waves occur because of winds, and winds blow because the Sun warms our atmosphere. Warm air tends to rise, and winds are due to other air moving in to replace it. Most power stations burn coal, oil or natural gas to run the generators. Others use uranium, or the flow of water. Electricity is sent around the country using high-voltage power lines. Nearly all of the power we use comes from large power stations, although some places such as isolated farms, or hospitals, have their own diesel generators. Introduction Slide 4: There are many different ways in which the abundance of energy around us can be stored, converted, and amplified for our use. To help you understand the key energy sources that will play an important role in the world's future, we have designed a number of pages to familiarize you with some of the history, theory, economics, and problems of the various types of energy. The energy sources have been split into three categories: fossil fuels, renewable sources, non renewable resources and nuclear sources. The fossil fuels covered here are coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The renewable energy sources are solar, wind, hydroelectric, biomass, and geothermal power. The nuclear-powered sources are fission and fusion. Types Of Resources Slide 5: Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources—such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat—which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2006, about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, such as wood-burning. Hydroelectricity was the next largest renewable source, providing 3% of global energy consumption and 15% of global electricity generation Renewable Resources Slide 6: Solar photovoltaic Solar thermal power Passive solar water heating Wind Hydropower Biomass Ocean energy Geothermal Waste to Energy Examples Slide 7: Photovoltaic system (or PV) is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells for energy by converting solar energy (sunlight, including ultra violet radiation) directly into electricity. Due to the growing demand for clean sources of energy, the manufacture of solar cells and photovoltaic rays has expanded dramatically in recent years. Solar Photovoltaics Slide 8: Solar Photovoltaic Slide 9: Solar thermal energy (STE) is a technology for harnessing solar energy for thermal energy (heat). Solar thermal collectors are defined by the USA Energy Information Administration as low-, medium-, or high-temperature collectors. Low temperature collectors are flat plates generally used to heat swimming pools. Medium-temperature collectors are also usually flat plates but are used for creating hot water for residential and commercial use. High temperature collectors concentrate sunlight using mirrors or lenses and are generally used for electric power production. STE is different from photovoltaics, which convert solar energy directly into electricity. Solar Thermal Power Slide 10: Solar Thermal Power Slide 11: Solar water heating or solar hot water is water heated by the use of solar energy. Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage. The system may use electricity for pumping the fluid, and have a reservoir or tank for heat storage and subsequent use. The systems may be used to heat water for a wide variety of uses, including home, business and industrial uses. Heating swimming pools, under floor heating or energy input for space heating or cooling are more specific examples. In many climates, a solar heating system can provide up to 85% of domestic hot water energy.This can include domestic non-electric concentrating solar thermal systems. In many northern European countries, combined hot water and space heating systems (solar combi systems) are used to provide 15 to 25% of home heating energy. Passive Solar Water Heating Slide 12: Passive Solar Water Heating Slide 13: Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as electricity, using wind turbines. At the end of 2008, worldwide nameplate capacity of wind-powered generators was 121.2 gigawatts (GW). In 2008, wind power produced about 1.5% of worldwide electricity usage; and is growing rapidly, having doubled in the three years between 2005 and 2008. Several countries have achieved relatively high levels of wind power penetration, such as 19% of stationary electricity production in Denmark, 11% in Spain and Portugal, and 7% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland in 2008. As of May 2009, eighty countries around the world are using wind power on a commercial basis. Wind Energy Slide 14: Wind Energy Slide 15: Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the force or energy of moving water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Hydropower Slide 16: Hydropower Slide 17: Biomass, a renewable energy source, is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms, such as wood, waste, and alcohol fuels. Biomass is commonly plant matter grown to generate electricity or produce heat. For example, forest residues (such as dead trees, branches and tree stumps), yard clippings and wood chips may be used as biomass. However, biomass also includes plant or animal matter used for production of fibers or chemicals. Biomass may also include biodegradable wastes that can be burnt as fuel. It excludes organic material such as fossil fuel which has been transformed by geological processes into substances such as coal or petroleum. Biomass Slide 18: Biomass Slide 19: The ocean can produce two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun's heat, and mechanical energy from the tides and waves. Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface, making them the world's largest solar collectors. The sun's heat warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water, and this temperature difference creates thermal energy. Just a small portion of the heat trapped in the ocean could power the world. Ocean Energy Slide 20: Ocean Energy Slide 21: Geothermal power is power extracted from heat stored in the earth. This geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface. It has been used for space heating and bathing since ancient Roman times, but is now better known for generating electricity. Worldwide, geothermal plants have the capacity to generate about 10 GW as of 2007, and in practice generate 0.3% of global electricity demand. An additional 28 GW of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications. Geothermal Slide 22: Geothermal Slide 23: Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of electricity or heat from the incineration of waste source. WtE is a form of energy recovery. Most WtE processes produce electricity directly through combustion, or produce a combustible fuel commodity, such as methane, methanol, ethanol or synthetic fuels. Waste To Energy Slide 24: Waste To Energy Slide 25: A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be produced, re-grown, regenerated, or reused on a scale which can sustain its consumption rate. These resources often exist in a fixed amount, or are consumed much faster than nature can recreate them. Fossil fuel (such as coal, petroleum and natural gas) is an example. In contrast, resources such as timber (when harvested sustainably) or metals (which can be recycled) are considered renewable resources. Non-Renewable Energy Slide 26: Coal Petroleum Oil Natural Gas Nuclear Examples Slide 27: Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock normally occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. It is composed primarily of carbon along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Coal, a fossil fuel, is the largest source of energy for the generation of electricity worldwide, as well as one of the largest worldwide anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide emissions. Gross carbon dioxide emissions from coal usage are slightly more than those from petroleum and about double the amount from natural gas. Coal is extracted from the ground by mining, either underground or in open pits. Coal Slide 28: Coal Slide 29: Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid found in rock formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds. Petroleum Slide 30: Petroleum Slide 31: An oil is a substance that is in a viscous liquid state at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic and lipophilic. This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated chemical structures, properties, and uses, including vegetable oils, petrochemical oils, and volatile essential oils. Oil is a no polar substance. Oil Slide 32: Oil Slide 33: Oil Pipeline At Saudi Arabia Slide 34: Natural gas is a gas consisting primarily of methane. It is found associated with fossil fuels, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is created by methanogenic organisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills. It is an important fuel source, a major feedstock for fertilizers, and a potent greenhouse gas. Natural gas is often informally referred to as simply gas, especially when compared to other energy sources such as electricity. Before natural gas can be used as a fuel, it must undergo extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by-products of that processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulfur, and sometimes helium and nitrogen. Natural Gas Slide 35: Natural Gas Slide 36: Natural Gas Pipeline At Brunei Slide 37: Nuclear energy is released by the splitting (fission) or merging together (fusion) of the nuclei of atom (s). The conversion of nuclear mass to energy is consistent with the mass-energy equivalence. Nuclear energy was first discovered by French physicist Henri Becquerel in 1896, when he found that photographic plates stored in the dark near uranium were blackened like X-ray plates, which had been just recently discovered at the time 1895. Nuclear Energy Slide 38: Nuclear Slide 39: Tarapur Atomic Power Station (T.A.P.S.) is located in Tarapur, Maharashtra (India). It was initially constructed with two boiling water reactor (BWR) units of 160 MW each by Bechtel and GE under the 1963 123 Agreement between India, the United States, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. These were the first of their kind in Asia. More recently, an additional two pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) units of 540 MW each were constructed by L & T and Gammon India, seven months ahead of schedule and well within the original cost estimate. Atomic Energy Project At Tarapur Slide 40: Atomic Energy Project At Tarapur Slide 42: THE END You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.