ITER

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International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor :

International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITER's member states : the EU, India, Russia, China, South Korea, Japan and the United States. Formation: 1985 Headquarters : Cadarache, France

CONTENTS:

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES WORKING OF ITER ITER MACHINE ITER’S SAFETY CONCLUSION REFERENCES

What is ITER?:

What is ITER? ITER (originally the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ) is an international tokamak (magnetic confinement) research/engineering project that could help to make the transition from today's studies of plasma physics to future electricity-producing fusion power plants

BACKGROUND:

BACKGROUND On November 21, 2006, the seven participants formally agreed to fund the creation of a nuclear fusion reactor . ITER is designed to produce approximately 500 MW of fusion power sustained for up to 1,000 seconds. ITER was originally an acronym for I nternational T hermonuclear E xperimental R eactor , but that title was dropped due to the negative popular connotation of "thermonuclear," especially when in conjunction with "experimental".

OBJECTIVES:

OBJECTIVES To momentarily produce ten times more thermal energy from fusion heating . To produce a steady-state plasma with a Q value greater than 5. To maintain a fusion pulse for up to eight minutes. To ignite a 'burning' (self-sustaining) plasma. To refine neutron shield/heat conversion technology .

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Lights on the earth at night

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2 billion people Do not have access to the electricity

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Vast needs in the industrialized world.

SCIENCE TO ITER:

SCIENCE TO ITER Fusion Plasma Heating Magnetic Confinement

FUSION:

FUSION

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Deuterium is a common isotope of hydrogen made by sea water. Tritium is an other rare isotope of hydrogen. We can produce it from the following reaction. FUSION IN ITER 6 Li + n → 4 He +T

FUSION HAS MANY POTENTIAL ATTRACTIONS:

FUSION HAS MANY POTENTIAL ATTRACTIONS Abundant fuel Intrinsically safe No production of CO2 or atmospheric pollutants Clean nuclear stove" producing relatively short-lived waste.

FUSION FUELLING:

FUSION FUELLING Although different isotopes of light elements can be paired to achieve fusion, the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction has been identified as the most efficient for fusion devices. ITER and the future demonstration power plant DEMO will use this combination of elements to fuel the fusion reaction . Deuterium can be distilled from all forms of water. It is a widely available, harmless, and virtually inexhaustible resources.

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In order the particles to acquire Energy and collide we heat them in grate temperatures (150.000.000 o C). Thus they exist in a state called plasma where they have lost all their electrons. For the reason why there is not a material than may hold these temperatures we use magnetic field to control the individual charges inside plasma in a process called magnetic confinement . CONDITIONS FOR FUSION

PLASMA:

PLASMA The fourth state of matter. At extreme temperatures, electrons are separated from nuclei and a gas becomes a plasma - a hot, electrically charged gas. In a star as in a fusion device, plasmas provide the environment in which light elements can fuse and yield energy. Some 99% of the known universe is in the plasma state. Examples of plasmas include the sun, fluorescent light bulbs, and other gas-discharge tubes.

PLASMA HEATING:

PLASMA HEATING The plasma may be heated by its self . The helium nuclei that remain from the reaction offer energy to the other particles inside the reactor by collisions. Moreover we have three additional mechanisms for this procedure : Ohmic heating where the current that passes trough plasma heats it like the a lamp during its operation. Neural beam injection where neutral particles are injected inside the reactor and give energy to the particles via collisions. Radio frequency heating where we the plasma in the same way that we heat our food in a microwave oven.

MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT:

The main method to make magnetic confinement, is to pass current through plasma and create an incoming magnetic force. Because of the plasma’s instabilities we also use an additional toroidal magnetic field. MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT

ITER MACHINE (TOKAMAK):

ITER MACHINE (TOKAMAK) The Machine The Tokamak >  Magnetic coils >  Blanket >  Divertor >  External Heating > Plasma > Solenoid

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Except from tritium we do not have any radioactive materials inside the reactor . Any second inside the reactor there is less than a gram of fuel . The reaction can not continue unless we have fuel. After keeping in safety the components of the installation for 100 years they are as radioactive as a plant that produces energy from coal. ITER’S SAFETY

CONCLUSIONS:

CONCLUSIONS The amount of radioactive waste produced be hundreds of times less than that of a fission reactor. Fusion reactor doesn’t undergo a large scale runaway chain reaction. Solar, wind, and hydroelectric power all have a relatively low power output per square kilometer compared to ITER

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WebPages www.iter.org www.google.co.in www.wikipedia.com www.efda.org www.jet.efda.org www-fusion-magnetique.cea.fr REFERENCES

Thank You…:

Thank You …

PRESENTATION ON ITER:

PRESENTATION ON ITER Presented by : SHOBHIT JAIN 0903031098 E.C.E.

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