Introduction to Organizational Behavior : Introduction to Organizational Behavior OB is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations.
It interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives. Elements of Organizational Behavior : Elements of Organizational Behavior The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from. Models of Organizational Behavior : Models of Organizational Behavior There are four major models of Organizational Behavior
Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal.
Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation. Slide 6: Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives.
Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm. Different Approaches to OB : Different Approaches to OB • Taylorism and Scientific Management Approach by Frederic Winslow Taylor, (1856-1915) :
Taylor attempted to make a science for each element of work and restrict behavioral alternatives facing worker. Taylor looked at interaction of human characteristics, social environment, task, and physical environment, capacity, speed, durability, and cost. The overall goal was to remove human variability. This involved breaking down each task to its smallest unit and to figure out the one best way to do each job. Then the engineer, after analyzing the job should teach it to the worker and make sure the worker does only those motions essential to the task. The Human Relations Approach by Elton Mayo : The Human Relations Approach by Elton Mayo Elton Mayo along with Roethlisberger and Dickinson conducted a study called as Hawthorne Study in the Western Electric Cicero in 1920s, which showed how work groups provide mutual support and effective resistance to management schemes to increase output.
The results of the research led researchers to feel that they were dealing with socio-psychological factors that were not explained by classic theory which stressed the formal organization and formal leadership Comparison of traditional assumptions vs. human relations : Comparison of traditional assumptions vs. human relations Traditional Assumptions
people try to satisfy one class of need at work: economic need
no conflict exists between individual and organizational objectives
people act rationally to maximize rewards
we act individually to satisfy individual needs Slide 10: Human relations Assumptions
organizations are social systems, not just technical economic systems
we are motivated by many needs
we are not always logical
we are interdependent; our behavior is often shaped by the social context
informal work group is a major factor in determining attitudes and performance of individual workers
management is only one factor affecting behavior; the informal group often has a stronger impact
job roles are more complex than job descriptions would suggest; people act in many ways not covered by job descriptions
there is no automatic correlation between individual and organizational needs
communication channels cover both logical/economic aspects of an organization and feelings of people
teamwork is essential for cooperation and sound technical decisions
leadership should be modified to include concepts of human relations
job satisfaction will lead to higher job productivity
management requires effective social skills, not just technical skills Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y : Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two theories/assumptions, which are very nearly the opposite of each other, about human nature.
His first theory was “Theory X”, which is pessimistic and negative; and according to McGregor it is how managers traditionally perceive their workers. Then, in order to help managers replace that theory/assumption, he gave “Theory Y” which takes a more modern and positive approach. He believed that managers could achieve more if managers start perceiving their employees as self-energized, committed, responsible and creative beings. Weber's Bureaucracy Approach : Weber's Bureaucracy Approach German sociologist Max Weber, observing the organizational innovations of the German leader Bismarck, identified the core elements of the new kind of organization. He called it bureaucracy.
The Basic Elements of the Bureaucratic Structure
authority is rational and legal; authority should be based on position, not on the person in the position
authority stems from the office and this authority has limits as defined by the office
positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority
organizations are governed by rules and regulations Slide 15: Neo Classical Approach
This approach emphasize that :-
Organization is a social system.
It is people oriented
It’s a behavioral science approach and gives importance to Human Relations
It is also known as Theory Y
Organizational Behavior plays the role in