Individual Behaviour

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Presentation Transcript

Slide 1: 

0 Foundations of Individual Behavior

Biographical Characteristics : 

1 Biographical Characteristics Biographical Characteristics Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, and marital status—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.

Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence : 

2 Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence AbilityAn individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual AbilityThe capacity to do mental activities. Multiple IntelligencesIntelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.

Dimensions ofIntellectual Ability : 

3 Number aptitude Verbal comprehension Perceptual speed Inductive reasoning Deductive reasoning Spatial visualization Memory Dimensions ofIntellectual Ability

Physical Abilities : 

4 Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.

The Big Five Personality Dimensions : 

5 The Big Five Personality Dimensions Extraversion: Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad minded Research finding: Conscientiousness is the best (but not a strong) predictor of job performance

Slide 7: 

6 Holland’s Personality-Job Fit Theory Type Personality Occupations Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic Shy, Stable, Practical Analytical, Independent Sociable, Cooperative Practical, Efficient Ambitious, Energetic Imaginative, Idealistic Mechanic, Farmer, Assembly-Line Worker Biologist, Economist, Mathematician Social Worker, Teacher, Counselor Accountant, Manager Bank Teller Lawyer, Salesperson Painter, Writer, Musician

Attitudes : 

7 Attitudes Cognitive and affective evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way Attitudes determine how people Perceive the work environment Interact with others Behave on the job or

Components of an Attitude : 

8 Components of an Attitude

Components of Attitudes : 

9 Components of Attitudes Cognitive component includes the beliefs, opinions, and information the person has about the object of the attitude Affective component is the person’s emotions or feelings about the object of the attitude Behavioral component of an attitude is the person’s intention to behave toward the object of the attitude in a certain way

High-Performance Work Attitudes : 

10 High-Performance Work Attitudes Two attitudes that might relate to high performance Job Satisfaction Organizational Commitment Managers of today’s knowledge workers often rely on job satisfaction to keep motivation and enthusiasm for the organization high

High-Performance Work Attitudes : 

11 High-Performance Work Attitudes Job Satisfaction = positive attitude toward one’s job Organizational Commitment = loyalty to and heavy involvement in one’s organization

Conflicts Among Attitudes : 

12 Conflicts Among Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance = condition in which two attitudes or a behavior and an attitude conflict Leon Festinger – 1950s People want to behave in accordance with their attitudes Usually will take corrective action

Slide 14: 

“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”

Slide 15: 

14 Perception “ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. “ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

The Perceptual Process : 

15 The Perceptual Process Sensation An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. Selection The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” Translation The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.

Slide 17: 

16 Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection

Factors influencing perception : 

17 Factors influencing perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

Slide 19: 

18 Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations Perception Factors in the Target Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity Factors in the situation Time Work Setting Social Setting

Perceptual organization : 

19 Perceptual organization It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects. Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are Figure ground Perceptual grouping

Figure-Ground Illustration : 

20 Figure-Ground Illustration Field-ground differentiation The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background.

Slide 22: 

21 PERCEPTUAL GROUPING Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -closure -proximity -similarity

Slide 23: 

22 Types of Values Terminal Values Instrumental Values

Slide 24: 

23 Values Across Cultures Power Distance Individualism or Collectivism Quantity or Quality of Life Uncertainty Avoidance Long-Term or Short-Term