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The concentration of green house gases in the atmosphere were artificially raised by humans since past 250 years. Slide 3: MEANING Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of Earth’s surface. Since the late 1800’s, the global average temperature has increased about 0.7 to 1.4 degrees. Global warming would cause much harm, so countries throughout the world drafted an agreement called Kyoto Protocol to help limit it. Slide 4: GREEN HOUSE EFFECT After sunrise, when the sunrays fall on the surface of the Earth, the air near the surface of he Earth is heated , after the sunset the heat absorbed by the atmosphere is radiated back The average surface temperature is 15 degree Celsius. It is about 33 degree Celsius higher than it would be in the absence of the green house effect. Slide 6: Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) GREENHOUSE GASES GASES RESPONSIBLE : GASES RESPONSIBLE Carbon dioxide : It is generated by the human activities like burning of coal, wood, natural gas.oil etc. It is also released by animals & human beings during the process of respiration. The trees take in the carbon dioxide, therefore deforestation is also an important reason for increase in carbon dioxide. Slide 8: ENERGY UTILISATION Slide 9: ENERGY PRODUCTION Slide 10: NITROUS OXIDE It is generated due to burning of biomass, agriculture, livestock waste, nitrogen rich fuels. It accounts for 6% of the gases responsible for global warming. Slide 13: METHANE Methane accounts for 16% of all gases responsible for global warming . It is estimated that nearly 30 to 200 million tones of methane is released every year. The main source of methane is rice field. Slide 14: Chlorofluorocarbon [CFCS] It accounts for nearly 20% of the gases responsible for global warming. These are non-toxic, nonflammable & highly stable compounds. They are also used as coolants in compressors of air conditioners & refrigerators. They are also use in insulators, fire extinguishers, aerosol etc. Slide 15: IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE Slide 17: EFFECT OF GLOBAL WARMING On human Society: Siberia & Canada might experience increase in temperature from 10 to 12 degrees. The rainfall have increased by 2 to 3% per decade over tropical regions due to high rate of evaporation. There is 2% increase in the cloud cover in middle to higher latitude land area during the 20th century. Slide 18: On Plants & Animals: The dense Sunderbans in W.Bengal is one of the richest forest in the world Slowly disappearing & eventually die if the current trend in global warming countries. There are rapid rise in global temperature in next 100 years The wetland & coral reef may also undergo decline due to climatic changes Slide 19: On Agriculture: There may be positive or negative effect on various type of crop in different regions of the world. Soil moisture may decrease, water requirement of the crop will increase & will affect the crop yield. Due to Green house effect, several plants cripple down their size, fruits & leaves. Slide 20: Source Of Soil Pollution Slide 21: It may lead to changes in rainfall pattern & some areas may become breeding ground for mosquitoes & some other insects which are vector of disease like malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, etc. In low rainfall there will be waterborne disease. Heat waves are harmful to health. On Human Health: Slide 22: On Ocean Life: It is estimated that there will be rise in sea level by 20 to30 cm by 2030. Due to increase in the temperature, the water expands & require more space. It also occur as a result of melting of glaciers in non- polar regions during the 20th century. Due to global warming the ice extent & snow cover have decreased. Kilimanjaro 1970 : Kilimanjaro 1970 Slide 24: Kilimanjaro 2000 Slide 26: AGREEMENT ON GLOBAL WARMING Emission targets: The 38 countries would restrict their emission to a yearly average of about 95% of their 1990 emissions. Approving the agreement: By 2004,more than 100 countries, including nearly all the countries had ratified the agreement. Slide 27: The first stimulation took in to account both the natural processes & human activities that affect climate. The second stimulation took in to account only the natural processes, & the third only the human activities. Slide 28: The IPCC also produced & published results predicting temperature until 2010. Contributors are: Michael.D.Mastrandrea, B.S, Graduate fellow, School of Earth Sciences, Geological & environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Prof of Biological Sciences. Slide 29: ANALYZING GLOBAL WARMING Scientists use information from several sources to analyze global warming that occurred before people began to use thermometers. Computers help climatologists to analyze past climate change & predict the future changes. Slide 30: Mitigation: Carbon capture & storage is an approach to mitigation. Many Environmental groups encourage individual action against global warming. Adaptation: Measures have been suggested for adaptation to global warming. Geoengeeniering: It is the deliberate modification . No large scale geoengineering project have yet been undertaken. Response To Global Warming Do’s And Don'ts : Do’s And Don'ts PLANT TREES They absorb CO2. RECYCLE It saves energy SAVE ELECTRICITY Use energy efficient products. USE RECYCLED PAPER Save trees from being cut. DON’T LEAVE APPLIANCES ON. DON’T USE A CAR OR MOTORBIKE TO TRAVEL SHORT DISTANCES. BUY FRESH FOODS FROZEN FOOD USES 10 TIMES MORE ENERGY. 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