5. Overview of Emergency Exercises

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Overview of Emergency Management Exercises: 

Overview of Emergency Management Exercises Willie Freeman Director of Security, Newark Public Schools Matt Taylor Associate Director, Institute for Educational Research and Service, College of Education, The University of Montana

Presentation Goals: 

Presentation Goals Discuss why schools should conduct emergency management exercises Discuss various types of exercises Discuss how to build a successful exercise design continuum Share best practices in conducting exercises

Exercises In The Four Phases of Emergency Management : 

Prevention -Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery Exercises In The Four Phases of Emergency Management Exercises are a core element of the Preparedness phase. However, an effective exercise program impacts each phase of the emergency management cycle. Emergency Exercises: Identify vulnerabilities to address in the Prevention-Mitigation phase Allow partners to practice a Response Recognize what resources may be needed for Recovery

Slide 4: 

Reasons to Conduct Emergency Exercises Clarify roles and responsibilities Evaluate plans and procedures Develop effective agency relationships Assess resources and capabilities Identify gaps, needs and solutions Promote school and community preparedness Comply with State legislation

Discussion: 

Discussion Based on your experience, briefly make the case for why investing time and resources into exercises is valid in a time of ever dwindling budgets.

Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Training and Exercise Strategy: 

Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) Training and Exercise Strategy

Why Should Schools Follow HSEEP?: 

Why Should Schools Follow HSEEP? Provides a common exercise policy and program guidance throughout the nation Utilizes lessons learned and best practices from past experiences Provides standardized components and formats that are customizable Provides a common operating language Allows for easy integration into working with other emergency responders

Slide 8: 

HSEEP’s Building Block Approach A comprehensive school emergency exercise program contains activities that build: From simple to complex; From narrow to broad; From least expensive to most costly to implement; and From theoretical to realistic.

HSEEP: Typical Exercise Flow: 

HSEEP: Typical Exercise Flow Discussion-based Operations-based

Slide 10: 

Discussion-Based Exercises “ Discussion–based exercises familiarize players with current plans, policies, agreements and procedures, or may be used to develop new plans, policies, agreements, and procedures .” Discussion-based exercises can include: Seminars (orientation sessions) Workshops Tabletop Exercises Games

Seminars (Orientation Sessions): 

Seminars (Orientation Sessions) “Seminars are informal discussions, unconstrained by real-time events and led by a presenter.” Introduce something new or existing (e.g., policies and plans, emergency operations center) Emphasize emergency management link to school mission, finances, annual progress, and community responsibility What are the advantages of conducting seminars?

Workshops: 

Workshops “Workshops focus on building a product and include increased participant interaction.” Must be highly focused on a specific issue and the desired outcome must be clearly defined May be used to produce new plans, procedures, multi-year training and exercise schedules Typically begin with a presentation followed by facilitated breakout sessions

Advantages of Seminar & Workshops: 

Advantages of Seminar & Workshops Provide a low-stress environment Effective for both small and large groups Utilize a no-fault forum Encourage participant interaction No actual time constraints Support a variety of instructional techniques Create an end product

Tabletop Exercises: 

“Tabletop exercises involve key personnel discussing hypothetical scenarios in an informal setting.” Used to assess plans, procedures, or systems Facilitate an understanding of concepts Identify strengths and shortfalls Achieve changes in approach to a particular situation What are some of the advantages of conducting a tabletop exercise? Tabletop Exercises

Operations-Based Exercises: 

Operations-Based Exercises “Operations-based exercises are characterized by: actual reaction to a simulated scenario; response to emergency conditions; mobilization of apparatus, resources, and/or networks; and commitment of personnel, usually over an extended period of time.” Types of operations-based exercises include: Drill Functional Exercise Full-Scale Exercise

Drills: 

Schools commonly conduct fire evacuation drills, but a comprehensive approach to emergency management also requires practicing many other procedures (e.g., control of infectious disease, shelter-in-place, etc.) under a variety of conditions. Drills “A drill is a coordinated, supervised exercise activity, normally used to test a single specific operation or function.”

Advantages of Drills: 

Advantages of Drills Narrow in focus, measured against established standards Immediate feedback Realistic environment Performance in isolation Prepare players for exercises that are larger in scope Improve performance of the function drilled delete

Functional Exercises: 

Focused on exercising plans and procedures and staff involved in incident command functions. Driven by an exercise scenario with event updates that drive activity. Conducted in a realistic, real-time environment without movement of personnel and equipment. Functional Exercises “A functional exercise is designed to validate and evaluate individual capabilities, multiple functions, activities within a function, or interdependent groups of functions.”

Advantages of Functional Exercises: 

Advantages of Functional Exercises Conducted in realistic, real-time environment Performance analysis part of the exercise Adequacy, appropriation, and acquisition of resources are measured Cooperative relationships are examined Less expensive than a full-scale exercise (no movement of personnel or equipment)

Full-Scale Exercises: 

Full-Scale Exercises “A full-scale exercise is the most complex type of exercise. [They] are multi-agency, multi-jurisdictional, multi-organizational exercises that validate many facets of preparedness.” Focus on implementing and analyzing plans, policies, procedures, and cooperative agreements Conducted in real-time, creating a stressful, time-constrained environment that closely mirrors real events

Advantages of Full-Scale Exercises: 

Simulate a real event as closely as possible—the ultimate test of functions Evaluate the operational capability of emergency management systems in a highly stressful environment that simulates actual response conditions Activate the Incident Command System (ICS)/Emergency Operations Center (EOC) Coordinate the actions of several entities Test several emergency functions Excellent learning exercise Utilize same personnel "roles" as functional exercise—but now includes “victims" Advantages of Full-Scale Exercises

After Action Report (AAR) Process: 

After Action Report (AAR) Process Common to tabletop exercises and all operational-based exercises Utilizes the following elements: Player hot wash Participant feedback forms Controller/Evaluator/Facilitator debrief Completed Exercise Evaluation Guides

After Action Report (AAR) / Improvement Plan (IP): 

After Action Report (AAR) / Improvement Plan (IP) The AAR/IP summarizes the findings and analyzes player performance against plans/procedures during the exercise The IP is a table the provides for corrective actions for any identified areas of improvement Presented at the After Action Conference where the IP table is completed and accepted Adaptable format provide by HSEEP website

Building a Successful Exercise Program: 

Building a Successful Exercise Program Based on the needs assessment , select one of your school’s main vulnerabilities With response agencies, set a date six to eight months in advance for a full-scale exercise based on that vulnerability Designate a design team leader and exercise design team —or ensure there is a central school liaison who is part of the external agency design team From that date of the full scale exercise, count backwards 5 to 7 months and schedule the first seminar

Building a Successful Exercise Program (Cont’d): 

Determine which procedures will be utilized in the full-scale exercise, then schedule a series of tabletops exercises that separately address each one After several such tabletop exercises, schedule two to three drills Hold a functional exercise Execute the full-scale exercise Hold after-action reviews throughout Implement the evaluation results throughout Building a Successful Exercise Program (Cont’d)

Exercise Considerations: 

Coordinate with school and local public safety; have them observe or participate Follow your district or school procedures Make the exercises realistic, but do so safely Test warning and notification procedures Block normal evacuation routes to force staff to make critical decisions Plan for students, staff, and visitors with special needs Test accountability procedures (use the visitor log or other systems) Consider student release procedures during certain drills Debrief the same day with your teachers and staff Exercise Considerations

Best Practices in Conducting Exercises: 

Best Practices in Conducting Exercises Communicate information in advance to stakeholders Practice a variety of: Different scenarios based upon risks Different response procedures Test the capacity of all participating agencies—not just schools Evaluate and document lessons learned Implement exercise outcome recommendations

Best Practices in Conducting Exercises (Cont'd.): 

Implement the Incident Command System (ICS) within exercises to: Be compliant with the National Incident Management System (NIMS) Better integrate with local response agencies The goals of an exercise are NOT achieved UNTIL the recommendations from the after–action review are implemented Best Practices in Conducting Exercises (Cont'd.)

Common Exercise Mistakes: 

Common Exercise Mistakes Scenarios are not unique or tailored to the local area Scenarios are too complex to manage successfully Inadequate time allocated for exercise play No accurate critique of the exercise afterwards Safety issues are not addressed properly Exercise is planned and initiated too quickly Some critical agencies are not included After — action items are not implemented

Support Resources: 

Support Resources Local Emergency Management Agency (LEMA) Local Public Safety Agencies School District Personnel School Resource Officer Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) State and Local Homeland Security Agencies Victim Services Faith-Based Organizations

Support Resources (Cont’d.): 

Support Resources (Cont’d.) U.S. Department of Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program An evaluation program is a requirement to receive Department of Homeland Security funding. More information, tool kit and templates available at https://hseep.dhs.gov NOTE: The HSEEP site is a secure site—a password request may be sent to support@hseep.net to access some resources.

Additional Resources : 

Additional Resources The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) Exercise Development and Design Courses Online Training IS120a – An Introduction to Exercises IS130 – Exercise Evaluation and Improvement Planning IS139 – Exercise Design http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/ Georgia Emergency Management Agency’s (GEMA) “Education for Disaster” DVD http://www.gema.state.ga.us Email GEMA-SchoolSafety@gema.ga.gov

Additional Resources (Cont'd.): 

Additional Resources (Cont'd.) REMS Technical Assistance Center publications: Emergency Exercises: An Effective Way to Validate School Safety Plans http://rems.ed.gov/views/documents/Emergency_NewsletterV2I3.pdf Planning and Conducting a Functional Exercise http://rems.ed.gov/views/documents/HH_EmergencyExeMarch20th.pdf

Slide 34: 

Interactive Activity

School Safety and Physical Design Risk Matrix Example: 

School Safety and Physical Design Risk Matrix Example High Hurricane Tornado Medium Flood Violence Low Hazmat Spill Low Medium High Probability Severity

Interactive Activity: 

Interactive Activity Identify one high-priority vulnerability. Select a future date for a full-scale exercise. Briefly describe the scenario. List the partners that should participate in the exercise. Identify the key functions that your exercise will test. Develop a schedule of tabletops/drills/functional exercises that address each of the functions identified in Step 5.

Summary: 

Summary Why schools should conduct emergency exercises The types of emergency exercises How to build a successful exercise design continuum Best practices in conducting exercises

Presentation Credits: 

Presentation Credits Tha nk you to the following persons for their role as lead authors of this presentation: Steve Harris , Director, Office of Security and Emergency Preparedness, University of Georgia (Athens); and Matt Taylor , Associate Director, Montana Safe Schools Center at The University of Montana (Missoula). Special thanks to the following person for providing review and comment to these materials: Julie Collins, School Safety Program Manager , Florida Department of Education (Tallahassee).