NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

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PowerPoint Presentation: 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT Prepared & presented by- Kaushlesh K Sinha Class- 10 th Roll number- 1026

NUCLEAR ENERGY: 

NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear potential energy is the potential energy of the particles inside an atomic nucleus. Nuclear energy is the energy released during a nuclear reaction. The nuclear particles are bound together by the strong nuclear force. In fact the nucleus is the most densest and the hardest part on an atom which is a result of this strong nuclear force that binds the particles within.

TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS: 

TYPES OF NUCLEAR REACTIONS Fusion reactions — The process in which two nuclei of light elements (eg-hydrogen) combine to form a heavy nucleus (like that of helium) is called nuclear fusion. Fission reactions —A process in which the heavy nucleus of a radioactive atom( like- uranium, plutonium, or thorium) splits u into smaller nuclei when bombarded with low energy neutrons.

NUCLEAR FISSION : 

NUCLEAR FISSION Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays). Tremendous energy is produced. Sum of masses of smaller nuclei formed is a little les than that of the mass of the original heavy nucleus. This small loss of mass appears as a tremendous amount of energy. Let us take an example.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Nuclear fission diagrammatic representation.

HOW IT WORKS??: 

HOW IT WORKS??

LAYOUT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT: 

LAYOUT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

NUCLEAR REACTOR: 

NUCLEAR REACTOR A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate, as opposed to a nuclear bomb, in which the chain reaction occurs in a fraction of a second and if uncontrolled causing an explosion.

TYPES OF NUCLEAR RECATOR: 

TYPES OF NUCLEAR RECATOR BOILING WATER REACTOR PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR

BOILING WATER REACTOR: 

BOILING WATER REACTOR The boiling water reactor (BWR) is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power. It is the second most common type of electricity-generating nuclear reactor after the pressurized water reactor(PWR)also a type of light water nuclear reactor. The main difference between a BWR and PWR is that in a BWR, the reactor core heats water, which turns to steam and then drives a steam turbine. In a PWR, the reactor core heats water, which does not boil. This hot water then exchanges heat with a lower pressure water system, which turns to steam and drives the turbine. The BWR was developed by the Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric in the mid-1950s. The main present manufacturer is GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, which specializes in the design and construction of this type of reactor.

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR: 

PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR Pressurized water reactor Boiling water reactor The coolant is not permitted to boil in the core of the PWR. The coolant is permitted to boil in the core of the BWR. In a PWR the heat from the reactor is passed through a boiler to generate steam which goes to the turbine that drives the electrical generator. This is called an indirect cycle. In a BWR the steam generated in the reactor core is taken straight to the turbine, without the use of an intermediate boiler. This is known a direct cycle.

CONTROL RODS: 

CONTROL RODS A control rod is a rod made of chemical elements capable of absorbing many neutrons. They are used in nuclear reactors to control the rate of fission of uranium and plutonium The control rods essentially contain neutron absorbers like, boron, cadmium or indium.

NUCLEAR FUEL OR FUEL RODS: 

NUCLEAR FUEL OR FUEL RODS Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'consumed' by fission or fusion to derive nuclear energy. The most common fissile nuclear fuels are Uranium 235 ( 235 U) and Plutonium 239( 239 Pu).

TURBINES: 

TURBINES A turbine is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The simplest turbines have one moving part, a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached.

FEED PUMP: 

FEED PUMP Steam coming out of the turbine, flows through the condenser for condensation and recirculated for the next cycle of operation. The feed pump circulates the condensed water in the working fluid loop .

CONDENSER : 

CONDENSER The objective of the condenser are to reduce the turbine exhaust pressure to increase the efficiency and to recover high quality feed water in the form of condensate & feed back it to the steam generator without any further treatment. Condenser is a device or unit which is used to condense vapor into liquid.

COOLING TOWER: 

COOLING TOWER Water circulating through the condenser is taken to the cooling tower for cooling and reuse. Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere.

POWER PLANTS IN INDIA: 

POWER PLANTS IN INDIA Power station Operator State Type Units Total Capacity (MW) Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220x3 660 Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat PHWR 220x2 440 Kalpakkam NPCIL Tamil Nadu PHWR 220x2 440 Narora NPCIL Uttar Pradesh PHWR 220x2 440 Rawatbhata NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR 100x1, 200x1,220x2 740 Tarapur NPCIL Maharashtra BWR (PHWR) 160x2, 540x2 1400 Nuclear Power

ADVANTAGES: 

ADVANTAGES Nuclear power costs about the same as coal, so it's not expensive to make. Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Produces huge amounts of energy from small amounts of fuel. Produces small amounts of waste.

DISADVANTAGES: 

DISADVANTAGES High risks: It is technically impossible to build a plant with 100% security. The energy source for nuclear energy is Uranium. Uranium is a scarce resource, its supply is estimated to last only for the next 30 to 60 years depending on the actual demand.

DISADVANTAGES: 

DISADVANTAGES Nuclear power plants as well as nuclear waste could be preferred targets for terrorist attacks.. During the operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive waste is produced, which in turn can be used for the production of nuclear weapons.

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THANK YOU