Week 2 Presentation GEN 300

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GEN/300 Week Two Presentation : 

GEN/300 Week Two Presentation Developed and maintained by Julia A. Westlake

Key’s to College Studying Summary : 

Key’s to College Studying Summary

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 How can you become a better listener? Hearing and listening are not the same thing. Successful listening occurs when the speaker’s intended message reaches the listener. Poor listening causes communication breakdowns and mistakes Skilled listening promotes progress and success Listening is learnable and teachable Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 The stages of listening Sensation stage Listener hears the message when ears pick up on sound waves Interpretation stage Listener attaches meaning to the message Evaluation stage Listener judges message against personal values Reaction stage Listener provides feedback to speaker through questions, comments, and non-verbal queues Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Manage listening challenges Divided attention distractions Learn to focus your attention even when it is being pulled different ways Internal distractions: headaches, thoughts, hunger External distractions: noise, heat, cold Shutting a message out Do not focus just on specific points, listen to the speaker’s entire message Accept personal responsibility for your listening Find value in the speaker’s message, even if you do not agree with them Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Manage listening challenges Rush to judgment Do not make judgments until the speaker has concluded their statements; you may be surprised to hear their message turn or information that does not align with your initial thoughts Do not allow personal feelings, prejudice, or stereotypes to cloud your listening Identify how your opinions and emotions can interrupt your listening and make plans to address those issues Partial hearing loss Have your hearing checked regularly; make adjustments and accommodations as recommended Learning disabilities Work with your instructors, co-workers, employers, loved ones, etc to develop strategies for more effective learning and compensation for difficulties Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Becoming an active listener Set purposes for listening Establish goals for listening Ask questions Write questions down as they occur Ask questions when speaker has allotted time or pauses to do so Pay attention to verbal signposts Listen for queues in the speaker’s words Know what helps and hinders listening Identify what roadblocks to listening most effect you and create strategies for addressing those issues – such as not sitting in the back of a room where idle chatter is more likely to occur Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Signals pointing to key concepts There are three reasons for this A critical point in the process involves Most importantly The results indicate Signals pointing to differences On the contrary On the other hand In contrast Signals of support For example Specifically For instance Similarly Signals that summarize Finally Recapping this idea In conclusion As a result Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Stages of memory Encoding Information is changed from a message into a useable form, one that the brain can process and interpret Storage Information is held in the mind for later use Retrieval Memories are recovered from storage by a process called recall Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Improving your memory Use specific memory strategies General remembering – ideas but not exact details Verbatim memorization – exact details Have a purpose and intention Make the information important to you, think of why you are trying to remember it as you are encoding the message and sending it to storage Understand what you memorize Do not try to remember just words, apply them, think of examples, understand how the material relates to other things you already know and use Recite, Rehearse, and Write Restate the message in your own terms Try to explain the concept to someone else Write the concept down Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Improving your memory Separate main points from unimportant details Realize you do not always need to remember every detail; identify the details that need to be remembered exactly, in general, or not at all Study during short but frequent sessions Do not try to cram for something, take breaks and let your mind rest – attempt to spread out studying and preparation efforts over a longer time period Separate material into manageable sections Do not try to study and remember an entire chapter all at once, instead break it apart, if there are 10 sections, maybe read 3 sections per night and a fourth on the last night Practice the middle It is likely that you will remember the beginning and the end using most common memory practices, but do not forget to pay attention to the middle Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Improving your memory Create groupings Make the information resemble something you already use or chunk it together in a meaningful way so that you can recall it more easily Use visual aids Draw pictures, use note cards, think of a television show or movie, etc Record material Whether you use a tape recorder, paper, video, etc – try to record the material in some manner Use critical thinking Associate the material with something you already know and use so that the material is more easily understood and recalled for use Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Using Mnemonic devices A word, words, or series of letters that represents something else Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally Order of operations for math – Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, Subtraction Each letter in the sentence which begins a word stood for the mathematical operation that began with the same letter Creating Visual images and associations Create visual images in your mind regarding the material Try to use images which you are familiar with and know well Do not rely on images that are not obvious to interpret Example, if you are trying to remember the components of recycling you may wish to use the picture of the 3 arrows, indicating Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Using visual images to remember items in a list A mental walk – this is a concept where you store information in familiar places, then mentally “walk” there to retrieve it Forming an idea chain – An idea chain is when you form an exaggerated mental image of 20 or more items in a list, each image leads to or is connected to the next Creating acronyms A word formed from the first letters of a series of words Every Good Boy Does Fine E, G, B, D, F - also known as the notes on the treble clef in sheet music Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Chapter 8 : 

Chapter 8 Using songs or rhymes I before E except after C, or when you sound like “A” as in neighbor and weigh. Four exceptions if you please: either, neither, seizure, seize. M-ISS-ISS-IPP-I Adapted from: Carter, C., Bishop, J., & Kravits, S. (2007). Keys to college studying: Becoming an active thinker (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Writer’s Workshop Review : 

Writer’s Workshop Review

Formula for Academic Writing : 

Formula for Academic Writing Writing any good academic paper follows the same process - Begin with a solid thesis statement that clearly outlines and maps out your paper Outline what you will write Support each statement with at least 2 supportive references, explanations, examples, or facts Open with an introduction that grabs the reader’s attention Close by recapping your statements and restating your thesis and main points

Thesis Statements : 

Thesis Statements Every single paper needs to contain a thesis statement – otherwise there is no purpose to writing Thesis statements are the foundation for papers A thesis statement: Is located in the introduction Contains the entire point of your paper Can be disputed Typically is a single sentence Contains titles of the sections in your paper Outlines your paper If your paper involves persuasion (almost all do), you introduce your position here It is SPECIFIC – NOT generic!

Thesis Statements : 

Thesis Statements The formula for thesis statements is: Your Topic + Your Point = Thesis statement Thesis statements usually go through a few drafts Ideas This is when you are trying to find your point Working thesis statement When you are pretty sure you know what you are writing about Final Once you have written your paper and have all the details then go back and make sure your thesis is specific to your paper

Thesis Statements : 

Thesis Statements Let’s say you have been assigned to write a paper on Faculty ethics in terms of selecting textbooks for classes. Weak thesis Faculty use ethics when selecting textbooks to use for their classes. This is a weak thesis statement because it just restates the prompt or topic of the paper. Selecting textbooks for courses is difficult for faculty. This is a weak thesis statement because the reader has not been provided with the purpose for your paper.

Thesis Statements : 

Thesis Statements Strong thesis statements Faculty whom do not exercise ethics when selecting textbooks for their courses may resell complimentary texts, select texts based on publisher preferences, or select texts that do not align with the student’s needs. This is a good thesis statement because: The reader knows the topic The reader knows what you will address and in what order you will address the topics The reader knows how you will approach the topic a.k.a. your point

Thesis Statements : 

Thesis Statements Tips The University Library has a Thesis Generator that you can use to assist in building good thesis statements Be sure to ask yourself when you write if you followed your thesis statement ALWAYS present the information in the same order as you did in your thesis statement

Supporting Your Statements : 

Supporting Your Statements Facts about support - All of your statements need support, you cannot make a claim and provide no support. Support comes in pairs, think of an outline Point Support A Support B You will never have a support A all by itself, there will always be a support B – this is standard in academic writing

Supporting Your Statements : 

Supporting Your Statements Support can come in the form of: Facts Explanations Examples Quoted material or paraphrasing Mix your support up, do not have two quotes, two facts, two examples – use one fact, a quote, and an example together – this helps you to make your point more clearly and helps to avoid boring your reader Use credible support!

Supporting Your Statements : 

Supporting Your Statements Example of Bad Support Many teenagers have no respect for authority figures. According to Mary Poppins (1951), children should be taught discipline and respect so that as teens they will listen to their parents. The local newspaper is littered with stories of teens who are out of control, clearly they lack respect. This is an example of bad support because: Who cares what Mary Poppins says – first she is fictitious, and second the statement was from 1951- hardly relevant for a discussion on contemporary issues The second supportive statement seems to come from nowhere and makes a claim that just because newspaper’s have stories on teens who are out of control that suddenly masses of teens do not respect authority, that point has not been proven and is not believable based on the information presented.

Supporting Your Statements : 

Supporting Your Statements Example of Good Support Many teenagers have no respect for authority figures. According to Vigo (2007), teens reported having little or no respect for authority figures in the community or at home when they were from areas of extreme poverty, high crime, and homes with low education levels. Vigo’s findings are supported by recent newspaper articles regarding teens from low income, low education, and high crime areas disrespecting to authority figures. While some teens may openly respect authority figures it would seem as though risk factor’s for teen disrespect of authority figures are clearly evident. This is an example of good support because: The reader can believe Vigo since the author provided information regarding why Vigo is credible The author did not make biased claims or jump to conclusions The author used Vigo’s statements to lead into the next supportive statement The author drew a conclusion from the information that was presented to the reader

Introductions : 

Introductions Introductions follow this format: Statement to grab the reader’s attention A sentence or two to introduce the importance of the topic that will be discussed Thesis statement Transitional sentence from introduction to the body

Conclusions : 

Conclusions The conclusion of a paper follows this format: A transition shifting from the body to the conclusion – “In conclusion….” A sentence to three sentences restating the main points of the paper and how the thesis statement was supported or proven A final thought or concluding remark NEVER introduce new information in the conclusion!

Clichés : 

Clichés Do not use cliché statements when writing academic papers; while they may sound cute they distract from your point Examples: An apple a day keeps the doctor away You can catch more flies with honey than with vinegar Up the creek without a paddle Appearances may be deceiving Don't burn your bridges Don't put all your eggs in one basket Go with the flow What goes around comes around ‘ Nothing ventured nothing gained More: http://www.topskills.com/cliches.htm

Biased Statements : 

Biased Statements Do not use biased statements when you are writing, they make your reader question your authority Examples of biased writing All children grow to be adults All Latin American men are macho Women always struggle with math Everyone struggles with time management No one likes to work on teams Doctors charge too much Biased language makes claims that may initially sound accurate but are unfounded and unsupported by FACTS. Essentially these statements make the reader stop and say “Prove it!”

Using Third Person in Writing : 

Using Third Person in Writing Academic writing had nothing to do with YOUR personal opinion but it has everything to do with you forming and supporting opinions through your writing. Do not write in first person, you are not the end all be all authority on the majority of topics you will be writing on – the reader wants facts – present facts not your opinion Do not write in second person, the reader does not want to be told what to do or how incompetent they are – stick to the facts – if the reader identifies the material they will make the connection

Using Third Person in Writing : 

Using Third Person in Writing The ONLY time it is okay to write in first person for academic writing is when the prompt says “use first person” or “write a narrative” – even when the prompt says “include experiences,” “include personal analysis,” or “include personal opinions” – you still do not use first person – your opinions are evident by what you choose to include in your paper and how you phrase your statements and support. The only time it is okay to use second person in academic writing is when you are developing a presentation and the audience is all guaranteed to need and use your advice – this is VERY rare, only make this assumption occasionally when you have plenty of evidence to support it.

Wrap Up : 

Wrap Up Thesis statements Introductions Conclusions Third person Don’t use Clichés Don’t use slang

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