WK 4 CRT 205

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CRT 205: Critical Thinking : 

CRT 205: Critical Thinking Week 4 – Rhetorical Devices

Overview : 

Overview Chapter 4 Week 4 Assignments

Chapter 4 – Rhetorical Devices : 

Chapter 4 – Rhetorical Devices

Definition : 

Definition What is a rhetorical device? Rhetoric: study of the technique and rules for using language effectively; using language effectively to please or persuade Device: something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect Rhetorical Device: a use of language that creates a literary effect Laymen’s definition: Use of language with the purpose to please or persuade, not necessarily convey truth or literal meaning

Use : 

Use Rhetorical devices are NOT apart of an argument Used to persuade Used to please NOT a bad thing to use, BUT devices must be distinguished from actual statements as part of an argument Arguments are NOT made stronger by using rhetorical devices

Euphemisms : 

Euphemisms Definition: substitution of a word or phrase with negative or offensive meaning with a word or phrase that has a neutral or positive meaning Purpose: used to please, trick, displease, or mislead the audience

Euphemisms ~ Examples : 

Euphemisms ~ Examples

Dysphemisms : 

Dysphemisms Definition: used to make a situation, thing, person, etc sound worse than it actual is in reality; replacing positive words or phrases with those of negative meetings Purpose: used to deceive, mislead, call names, or make the audience think ill of someone or something Opposite of euphemism

Dysphemisms ~ Examples : 

Dysphemisms ~ Examples

Rhetorical Analogies : 

Rhetorical Analogies Definition: likening one thing to another in order to cast it in a positive or negative light Purpose: to persuade the audience’s opinion without offering fact or valid support Includes: Metaphors Similes

Rhetorical Analogies - Examples : 

Rhetorical Analogies - Examples You have a better chance of being struck by lightening than winning the lottery. Politicians are a lot like diapers, you should change them frequently and for the same reason. Defeating the Cubs in the pennant race is like beating a pee-wee league team, there’s no real accomplishment. Passing CRT 205 is like passing a kidney stone. Driving under the influence is like driving blind with an arm tied behind your back and a lame leg. You have a better chance of robbing a bank and getting away with it than getting a raise from our boss.

Rhetorical Definitions : 

Rhetorical Definitions Definition: using charged or emotional language to elicit a particular response about something Purpose: to sway the audience’s opinion without having to use fact or evidence

Rhetorical Definitions - Examples : 

Rhetorical Definitions - Examples Honey-Do-Lists –a way to keep man employed Stain remover – secret keeper Make-up – man-made deception in a compact Volkswagen Bug – pregnant roller skate SMART Car – death on wheels Family Photo Albums – blackmail evidence Polo shirt – t-shirt with a collar Lincoln Town Car – expensive taxi, cheap limo Engagement photos – proof of sanity and a waistline

Rhetorical Explanations : 

Rhetorical Explanations Definition: slanting device used as an explanation Purpose: to explain something to the audience without facts or solid evidence and elicit support for a certain stance on the topic

Rhetorical Explanations - Examples : 

Rhetorical Explanations - Examples She didn’t fight because she is too good for that. I would never shop at Clarks, it is on the lower East side. Independent films are for the low budget no-name actors. Children’s movies are for the simple minded adult. Sitcoms are a replacement for a social life and healthy habits.

Stereotypes : 

Stereotypes Definition: a biased assumption made based on observations of a few or less members of a group that is applied to all members of the group Purpose: to persuade an audience regarding the nature of a person or people Myth: all stereotypes are negative in nature – this is NOT true

Stereotypes - Examples : 

Stereotypes - Examples Asians are smart. Girls are bad at math. African-Americans are good at sports. Hispanics are illegal aliens. People who live in trailer parks or mobile homes are trashy. Women are bad drivers. People from the South are stupid. White males are power hungry. Jewish people are stingy. Muslims are radical terrorists. Boys are stronger than girls. Girls are moody. Guys are messy. Girls are clean. Catholics have lots of kids. Mormons are polygamists.

Innuendo : 

Innuendo Definition: manipulation of language to elicit a particular view Purpose: to bias the audience

Innuendo : 

Innuendo He is intelligent in many ways. There are many positions she could fill. Larry has been useful, so far. She has done as well as is to be expected. She will make a good enough wife for him. Ben had a good day, today. Charlotte does well in school I suppose. He is a promising student on occasion. She shows discretion occasionally.

Loaded Questions : 

Loaded Questions Definition: questions that incorporate unwarranted or unjustified assumptions to be included in the question Purpose: to sway the audience without actively doing so Reminder: do NOT use questions when you write!

Loaded Questions - Examples : 

Loaded Questions - Examples Have you stopped beating your wife? Assumption: the person was beating his wife Have you stopped drinking? Assumption: the person had a drinking problem or was drinking earlier. Have you gotten out of debt yet? Assumption: the person was in debt Have you stopped cheating on your husband? Assumption: the person was cheating on her husband Have you started using soap when you shower? Assumption: the person did not use soap or smelled previously Have you lost a lot of weight? Assumption: the person used to be a lot heavier

Weaselers : 

Weaselers Definition: a intentional use of language to make a claim seem less important than it is Purpose: to protect a claim by weakening it How to tell the difference between a weaseler and someone exercising caution – Ask yourself: if by stating the “qualification” (maybe, possibly, perhaps, etc) is the speaker/author getting out of something or admitting limitations? Getting out of something – weaseler Admitting limitations – not

Weaselers - Examples : 

Weaselers - Examples 9 out of 10 doctor’s surveyed recommend ABC medication. 4 out of 5 moms choose XYZ peanut butter. Some doctor’s believe that milk causes Autism. Some doctor’s believe that cancer is caused by the common cold. Perhaps some children do well with time outs. Some would say that a yellow car is less likely to get into a wreck. Some would say nurses are more qualified to diagnose and treat than doctors.

Downplayers : 

Downplayers Definition: using language to make someone or something seem less important or significant then it is Purpose: to distract the reader

Downplayers - Examples : 

Downplayers - Examples Don’t listen to the instructor, she is just another over-educated elitist. Who cares what grades you get, it isn’t like a business will ever care. Kids should be able to watch whatever they want, after all they are going to see rated R material on the streets. It doesn’t matter what I eat, I am just a skinny person. Don’t vote, it isn’t like your vote will count. Parents should be their kids’ friends, after all the world is cruel. Being responsible for your time is over-rated, everyone knows deadlines are meant to be passed.

Horse Laugh, Ridicule, Sarcasm : 

Horse Laugh, Ridicule, Sarcasm Definition: stating or restating a claim in a way that elicits laughter or mocking or tell an unrelated joke to make fun of the speaker/author; appeal to mockery Purpose: to ridicule or put down the person making the claim or the nature of the claim itself

Horse Laugh, Ridicule, Sarcasm - Examples : 

Horse Laugh, Ridicule, Sarcasm - Examples Billionaires for Bush One of your kids has been on the phone for hours and you say “Man, next time you should talk twice as long!” Your significant other takes two hours to get ready and you are a half hour late to a work function, your reply is “wow, ready in record time” Your instructor gets a paper that is not spell checked, formatted, or the proper length, in feedback he says “it looks like you really tried hard” Those crazy conservatives they think a strong military is the solution to everything. Provost Benson says he’ll lower tuition but in this economy that is just a joke. “Forgive me, Mrs. Palin, but is seems to me that when cornered, you become increasingly adorable. Is that fair to say?" (SNL, 2008)

Hyperbole : 

Hyperbole Definition: exaggeration Purpose: to influence the audience’s opinion by making them think something is worse or better than it is

Hyperbole - Examples : 

Hyperbole - Examples She has to use a sandblaster to get her make-up off at night. My teacher is so old they have already nailed the coffin shut. The town I grew up in is so small if you blink you will miss it. Miracle diet, do nothing and loose 10 pounds per day! I am so hungry I could eat a horse. She runs faster than lightening. My father was so mad, when he yelled the walls shook. I have been up forever. I slept for a week. Her hair is so big it blocks the sun.

Proof Surrogates : 

Proof Surrogates Definition: an expression used to suggest there is evidence or proof to support a claim but no proof or evidence is supplied Purpose: to sway the audience without having to prove a point

Proof Surrogates - Examples : 

Proof Surrogates - Examples Informed sources say that Europe is threatened. It is obvious that the lower division student is well informed of writing techniques. Obviously a person attending college is doing so to gain a degree in his or her chosen field. There is every reason to believe that college students are fully committed to their studies. Reliable sources have informed me that the test will be easy.

Persuasive Photographs and Images : 

Persuasive Photographs and Images Photos, images, multimedia can: Shape your views Elicit emotions Bias you/others Be a rhetorical device or fallacy Be misleading NOT convey claims NOT convey arguments Examples: Tabloid covers Magazine covers News story video and photos

Week 4 Assignments : 

Week 4 Assignments

Week 4 Assignments : 

Week 4 Assignments Discussion Questions 1 & 2 200 words min. Tuesday/Thursday due dates Spell check Participation Respond to a classmate or instructor Respond to the Week 4 challenge question Participate 3 out of 7 days with at least 2 substantive posts per day (does NOT include initial responses to DQs)

Week 4 Assignments : 

Week 4 Assignments Review Quizzes – 5 total Ch. 4 Persuasion via Rhetoric Quiz I (1) Persuasion via Rhetoric Quiz II (2) Ch. 5 Psychological Fallacies Quiz I (3) Ch. 6 More Fallacies Quiz I (4) More Fallacies Quiz II (5)

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