10 Shneiderman LeonardoLaptop8

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Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Ben Shneiderman (ben@cs.umd.edu) Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies & Systems Research University of Maryland ben@cs.umd.edu : 

Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Ben Shneiderman (ben@cs.umd.edu) Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies & Systems Research University of Maryland ben@cs.umd.edu

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Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory Interdisciplinary research community - Computer Science & Psychology - Information Studies & Education (www.cs.umd.edu/hcil)

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly): 

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly) Specify users and tasks Predict and measure time to learn speed of performance rate of human errors human retention over time Assess subjective satisfaction (Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction) Accommodate individual differences Consider social, organizational & cultural context

Design Issues: 

Design Issues Input devices & strategies Keyboards, pointing devices, voice Direct manipulation Menus, forms, commands Output devices & formats Screens, windows, color, sound Text, tables, graphics Instructions, messages, help Collaboration & communities Manuals, tutorials, training www.awl.com/DTUI usableweb.com hcibib.org useit.com

Library of Congress: 

Library of Congress Scholars, Journalists, Citizens Teachers, Students

Visible Human Explorer (NLM): 

Visible Human Explorer (NLM) Doctors Surgeons Researchers Students

NASA Environmental Data: 

NASA Environmental Data Scientists Farmers Land planners Students

Bureau of Census: 

Bureau of Census Economists, Policy makers, Journalists Teachers, Students

NSF Digital Government Initiative: 

NSF Digital Government Initiative Find what you need Understand what you Find UMd & UNC www.ils.unc.edu/govstat/

Information Visualization: 

Information Visualization The eye… the window of the soul, is the principal means by which the central sense can most completely and abundantly appreciate the infinite works of nature. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think : 

Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think Visual bandwidth is enormous Human perceptual skills are remarkable Trend, cluster, gap, outlier... Color, size, shape, proximity... Human image storage is fast and vast Opportunities Spatial layouts & coordination Information visualization Scientific visualization & simulation Telepresence & augmented reality Virtual environments

Treemap - Stock market, clustered by industry: 

Treemap - Stock market, clustered by industry

Current Research - TimeSearcher: 

Current Research - TimeSearcher Time series Stocks Weather Genes User-specified patterns Rapid search

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Leonardo’s Laptop The old computing is about what computers can do, The New Computing is about what people can do mitpress.mit.edu/leonardoslaptop www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/newcomputing

An Inspirational Muse: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): 

An Inspirational Muse: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Renaissance Man Combined science & art Integrated engineering & esthetics Balanced technology advances & human values Merged visionary & practical

Mona Lisa: 

Mona Lisa

Lady with Ermine & Leda with Swan: 

Lady with Ermine & Leda with Swan

Remarkable Drawing Skill: 

Remarkable Drawing Skill

Faces of Old Men: 

Faces of Old Men

Anatomical Drawings: 

Anatomical Drawings

Machine Gun and Giant Crossbow: 

Machine Gun and Giant Crossbow

Why Leonardo Inspires Us: 

Why Leonardo Inspires Us He integrated - Scientific outlook - Practical technology - Artistic skill

Goals for The New Computing: 

Goals for The New Computing 1) Usable: Reliable & comprehensible 2) Universal: Diverse users & varied equipment 3) Useful: In harmony with human needs

1) Usable: Ending User Frustration : 

1) Usable: Ending User Frustration Goal - make computer usage less frustrating Identify top ten frustrations Measure severity & frequency in lost time Determine if the situation is improving Related areas Errors Time delays Emotional reactions

1) Frequent frustrating experiences: 

1) Frequent frustrating experiences Networking & Web

Application & System Crashes: 

Application & System Crashes 1) Frequent frustrating experiences

1) Time diary study: 

1) Time diary study Self reports & observations (64 UMD & 47 Towson) Pre-session survey: demographic information computer experience and attitudes level of computer anxiety, mood Users spent 1 hour & report their frustrating experiences Post-session survey: assess mood after the session overall frustration level loss of time Florida Institute of Technology (e3.se.fit.edu:5335/ufs)

1) Results: 

1) Results

1) Minutes lost – UMD & Towson: 

1) Minutes lost – UMD & Towson Total minutes: 9485 7968 Total minutes lost: 4250 3652 1513 568 UMD Towson 353 294 902 877

1) Next Steps: 

1) Next Steps Validate results with other users professional elderly novice Develop more precise monitoring software e.g. www.bugtoaster.com Explore ways to improve: Online help & help desks Customer service & online communities Education & training Software & interface re-design

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2) Universal: Digital Divide Remains Troubling   U.S. Department of Commerce www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/dn/ Percent of Internet Use by Educational Attainment

2) Universal Usability in Practice: 

2) Universal Usability in Practice www.otal.umd.edu/uupractice/

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User diversity: Accommodate users with different skills, knowledge, age, gender, disabilities, disabling conditions (mobility, injury, noise, sunlight), literacy, culture, income, etc. Technology variety: Support broad range of hardware, software, and network access Gaps in user knowledge: Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know Communications of the ACM, May 2000 2) Universal: Diverse Users & Varied Equipment

3) Useful: Generative Theories: 

3) Useful: Generative Theories Predictive & explanatory theories are useful, but the big step forward will be  generative theories Theories of human needs to guide our invention of new technologies

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Jefferson: Life, Liberty & the Pursuit of Happiness Roosevelt: Freedom of speech & expression, religion, from want, from fear Maslow: Hierarchy of human needs Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-Actualization Covey: Living, Loving, Learning & Leaving a legacy 3) Theories of Human Needs

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Relationships Self: working on your own Family & Friends: 2-50 close intimates Colleagues & Neighbors: 50-5000 acquaintances Citizens & Markets: 5000 and more   3) Human Needs for Relationships

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Activities Collect: Information Relate: Communication Create: Innovation Donate: Dissemination 3) Human Needs for Activities

3) Activities and Relationship Table (ART): 

3) Activities and Relationship Table (ART) Relationships Self Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors    Citizenry & Markets   Activities Collect Relate Create Donate Skeptics corner - Are relationships more complex? - Are these useful activities?

Activities and Relationship Table (ART): 

Activities and Relationship Table (ART) Relationships Self Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors    Citizenry & Markets   Activities Collect Relate Create Donate

Activities and Relationship Table (ART): 

Activities and Relationship Table (ART) Relationships Self Family & Friends   Colleagues & Neighbors    Citizenry & Markets   Activities Collect Relate Create Donate

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3) Future Directions E-learning: The new education E-business: The new commerce E-healthcare: The new medicine E-government: The new politics Mega-creativity Grander Goals & The Next Leonardo www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/newcomputing

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Action Items Developers: Apply usability guidelines & testing methods Web producers: Develop UU statements Managers: Provide responsible leadership Journalists: Raise public expectations Policy makers: Raise & clarify requirements Funders: Expand research on usability Educators: Disseminate scientific results Researchers: Explore bold new visions Getting to the Golden Age of Usability

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): 

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Three lessons 1) Usable: Reliable & comprehensible 2) Universal: Diverse users & varied equipment 3) Useful: In harmony with human needs

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Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory 20th Anniversary – May 29-30, 2003 www.cs.umd.edu/hcil The old computing is about what computers can do, The New Computing is about what people can do

ACM Code of Ethics: 

ACM Code of Ethics In a fair society, all individuals would have equal opportunity to participate in, or benefit from, the use of computer resources regardless of race, sex, religion, age, disability, national origin or other such similar factors.

1) Results: 

1) Results Frustrating experiences: 228 145 Top problem sources: web browsing email system (OS) word processing other internet use video/audio software chat and instant messaging Top 3 approaches knew how to solve unable to solve figured out file browsers programming tools spreadsheet programs graphic design programs presentation software database programs hardware Bottom 3 approaches consulted manual/book consulted online help restarted the program UMD Towson

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Universal Usability Statement Browser Requirements Basic System Requirements Input Devices Display Audio/Video Network Connection Access for users with disabilities Diverse Users User support Contact Information   www.universalusability.org 2) Universal: Diverse Users & Varied Equipment

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