Languages of Computer/Programming Languages

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INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES A  programming language  is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine. Computer Program The set of instructions (executed by the CPU) to solve particular problems is called a computer program.


TYPES OF COMPUTER LANGUAGES There are two types of computer languages Low Level Languages High Level Languages

Low Level Languages:

Low Level Languages Languages which are close to computer and far from humans are called Low Level Languages. Computer can easily understand these languages. These languages are difficult to understand for human beings, only experienced programmers can understand these languages. There are two types of Low Level Languages Machine language Assembly Language

Machine Language:

Machine Language Machine language consists of binary numbers 0 and 1. It is the fundamental language of computer. Computer can understand this language without any translation. The program instructions are written by using series of binary numbers. Its is very difficult, complex and even time consuming to write a program. If there is an error in the program, then it becomes very difficult to detect it.

Assembly Language:

Assembly Language Assembly language is used to make programming easier. In assembly language special symbols are used for programming which are known as “Mnemonic Codes” . For example ADD is a mnemonic code which is used to add the numbers.

High Level Languages:

High Level Languages A language which is close to humans and far from computer is known as High Level Language. It is based on English like words. We can understand it very easily, but it is difficult to be understood by the computer. Special software's compilers and interpreter is required to translate High Level Languages in to machine language. For Example FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, PASCAL, etc are some examples of High Level Languages.

Types of High Level Languages:

Types of High Level Languages There are many types of High Level Languages but we will discuss only nine of them FORTRAN BASIC PASCAL C C++ VISUAL BASIC JAVA LISP COBOL


1.FORTRAN FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslation. It was developed by John Backus in 1957. It was mainly used for scientific purpose. It is a simple and easy high level language. John Backus wanted a programming language that was closer in appearance to human language, which is the definition of a high level language.


2.BASIC BASIC (standing for  B eginner's  A ll Purpose  S ymbolic  I nstruction  C ode) was written (invented) in 1963, at Dartmouth College, by mathematicians John George Kemeny and Tom Kurtz as a teaching tool for undergraduates. BASIC's popularity was spread by both Paul Allen and Bill Gates, in 1975. Gates and Allen (both Microsoft founding fathers) wrote a version of BASIC for the Altair personal computer. It was the first product Microsoft sold.


3.PASCAL The language was named after Blaze Pascal, who was a famous French Mathematician. It was developed by professor Niclaus in 1970. It has the best features of COBOL, FORTRAN and ALGOL language. The combination of features, input/output and mathematical features, made it a highly successful language.

4.C language:

4.C language C language was developed by Dennis Ritchie in 1972, while working at Bell Labs. It is commonly used in system programming and compiler writing. A very popular operating system UNIX was developed in C Language.

5.C++ Language:

5.C++ Language C++ was an extension of C. The Syntax of C++ is similar to C language. The main feature of C++ is that it is an object oriented language. It is the most important language in the field of computer science.


6.VISUAL BASIC Visual basic was the first visual development tool made by Microsoft. At the beginning it was not so popular, but when Microsoft released VB3.0 in the market it became very popular. Now Visual Basic is very popular for programming.


7.JAVA Java is an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) language created by James Gosling of Sun Microsystems. It was designed to control microprocessors used in cable receivers, VCR’s and PDA’s. This language has powerful capabilities of network programming and GUI.


8.LISP LISP stands for LISt Programming. It was designed for artificial intelligence research. The programming rules of this language are different from ordinary high level language. It has the ability to modify itself. It is used to develop computer games.


9.COBOL COBOL stands for COmmon Business Oriented Language. It was developed in 1959. It was specially developed for business and commercial applications. It was normally used for payroll, inventory and stock systems. It is a simple and easy high level language.

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