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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Chapter 3 Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit: Chapter 3 Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit Early GreeceEarly Greek Poetry: Early Greek Poetry Homeric epics: long narrative poems; heroic deeds; hero who brings pride to country. Iliad and Odyssey: First masterpieces of Western literature. Heroes: Achilles and Odysseus Despite man’s frailties, his life is nobleSappho’s Lyric Poetry: Sappho’s Lyric Poetry Lyric poems: brief, expressing feelings, often accompanied by a lyre. Sappho’s poems expressed her love for her women friends. Lived her life on the island of LesbosArt in Early Greece: Art in Early Greece The Archaic period: 650-490 B.C. Progression from the Egyptian models Naturalism: attempt to represent objects as they appear in nature Vase painting: red-figure technique: figures left unpainted Greeks’ range of feelings and actionsSculpture: Sculpture Kouros: free standing nude male youth. Rigid Egyptian poses Koré: softer or female version. Clothing softened statueThe Classical Period: The Classical PeriodThe Classical Period: The Classical Period Opens with Greeks’ victory over Persians at Salamis in 490 B.C. Golden Age: 480 B.C. and 404 B.C., when Athens was defeated in the Peloponnesian Wars. Culture lasted until death of Alexander the Great. Polis life: Human nature dictates life in city Pericles: Delian League PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003Women in Classical Athens: Women in Classical Athens Excluded from public affairs Household duties: organization, supervision and labor. Hetaera: foreign women who worked as courtesans, entertainers and prostitutes. Some hetaera highly educatedThe Greek Temple: The Greek Temple The Parthenon (447 B.C.) Dedicated to Athena Post-and-lintel form Entablature: decoration of the vertical column and horizontal beam Orders: Styles of columns Cella: enclosed inner room of temple RefinementsErechtheum--Parthenon: Erechtheum--Parthenon How large is the Parthenon?: How large is the Parthenon?What it might have looked like…: What it might have looked like…Parthenon Sculptures: Parthenon Sculptures Phideas: Athena statue in cella and again on the east and west pediments Three Goddesses on East Pediment Frieze Cella frieze: low relief, noble procession of Athenian citizens depicted during the Pan Athenaic procession.Phideas’ Sculptures: Phideas’ SculpturesDyonisus: DyonisusOther Acropolis Buildings: Other Acropolis Buildings Propylaea: massive gateway Erechtheum: Ionic temple with two porches Caryatids: Porch of the Maidens Classical Humanism: Classical Humanism Belief that “Man is the Measure of All Things” Protagoras. Nobility of human intelligence and action Human ability to understand and control the world. “Secular” humanism is controversial today.The Classical Style: The Classical Style Representing the human figure in motion: turning point for Greek sculptors. Idealized, yet moving toward naturalismGreek Sculpture: Greek Sculpture Kritios Boy: Human figure in motion Classical Style: naturalism and idealism Myron’s Discobolus Riace Warrior Phideas? Praxiteles’ Aphrodite of Cnidos Contrapposto: S curveHellenistic Style: Hellenistic Style Emotionally charged realism of later Greek sculpture Alexander the Great Persia and Egypt Individuality Lacoon and his Two SonsGreek Theater: Greek Theater Athens: Greek Theater Themes: Power of the gods Course of human destiny Nature of love and justice Dyonisus patron god: wine, revelry and intoxication. Dyonisian festivalsGreek Tragedy: Greek Tragedy Open-air theaters or amphitheaters Wealthy citizens paid playwrights and producers Yearly competition Actors in front of the skene Chorus: actors who danced and chanted on the orchestra, the area surrounded by the theatronGreek Playwrights: Greek Playwrights Thespis: One actor Aeschylus: added a second actor and dialogue. Suffering and guilt led to gods Sophocles: Golden Age of Athens Oedipus Rex Hubris CatharsisPlaywrights: Playwrights Euripides: realism, social commentary Showed people as they were, gripped by violent passions MedeaGreek Comedy: Greek Comedy Humorous portrayal of everyday themes and characters. Aristophanes: Clouds and LysistrataGreek Philosophy: Greek Philosophy Philosophy: came from Greek’s fascination with rational inquiry. Materialists: substance of which all matter was composed Idealists: evidence of a divine and rational plan for cosmos--Pythagoras Sophists: professional teachers, skeptics—Protagoras. Became cynical.Socrates: Socrates Founded classical Greek philosophy and never wrote a word. Socratic Method Gadfly of Athens—Morals worth more than life itself. “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Trial and death: Tried for religious and moral offenses.Plato: Plato Student of Socrates Wrote Socrates’ dialogues Apology: Socrates’ trial Phaedo: Socrates’ last conversation The Republic: Ideal city-state/ Three parts of soul: reason, moral courage, appetites The AcademyAristotle: Aristotle Challenged Plato’s teachings Tutor for Alexander of Macedonia Ethics:Happiness is found in balance between two extremes: Golden Mean Poetics: Formal pattern of Greek drama. LyceumGreek Music: Greek Music Music: of the “Muses” Goddesses who inspired creative arts. Lyre Aulos Music could bring about feelings Music lost forever Pythagoras’ intervals: octavesHellenistic Age: Hellenistic Age Philip of Macedon subdued Greek city-states. Succeeded by son Alexander Alexander loved Greek civilization and spread it throughout his empire in Persia and Egypt Hellenistic: Greek-likeHellenistic Legacy: Hellenistic Legacy Collected great classical manuscripts in libraries. Artists imitated forms and ideas of the Greeks. Playwrights copied Greek theater Euclid: Planets revolve around the sun Established Greek culture as the standard. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.