Chapter 3 Greece 8 26 04

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Chapter 3 Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit: 

Chapter 3 Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit Early Greece

Early Greek Poetry: 

Early Greek Poetry Homeric epics: long narrative poems; heroic deeds; hero who brings pride to country. Iliad and Odyssey: First masterpieces of Western literature. Heroes: Achilles and Odysseus Despite man’s frailties, his life is noble

Sappho’s Lyric Poetry: 

Sappho’s Lyric Poetry Lyric poems: brief, expressing feelings, often accompanied by a lyre. Sappho’s poems expressed her love for her women friends. Lived her life on the island of Lesbos

Art in Early Greece: 

Art in Early Greece The Archaic period: 650-490 B.C. Progression from the Egyptian models Naturalism: attempt to represent objects as they appear in nature Vase painting: red-figure technique: figures left unpainted Greeks’ range of feelings and actions

Sculpture: 

Sculpture Kouros: free standing nude male youth. Rigid Egyptian poses Koré: softer or female version. Clothing softened statue

The Classical Period: 

The Classical Period

The Classical Period: 

The Classical Period Opens with Greeks’ victory over Persians at Salamis in 490 B.C. Golden Age: 480 B.C. and 404 B.C., when Athens was defeated in the Peloponnesian Wars. Culture lasted until death of Alexander the Great. Polis life: Human nature dictates life in city Pericles: Delian League

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: 

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: 

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: 

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: 

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: 

PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003

Women in Classical Athens: 

Women in Classical Athens Excluded from public affairs Household duties: organization, supervision and labor. Hetaera: foreign women who worked as courtesans, entertainers and prostitutes. Some hetaera highly educated

The Greek Temple: 

The Greek Temple The Parthenon (447 B.C.) Dedicated to Athena Post-and-lintel form Entablature: decoration of the vertical column and horizontal beam Orders: Styles of columns Cella: enclosed inner room of temple Refinements

Erechtheum--Parthenon: 

Erechtheum--Parthenon

How large is the Parthenon?: 

How large is the Parthenon?

What it might have looked like…: 

What it might have looked like…

Parthenon Sculptures: 

Parthenon Sculptures Phideas: Athena statue in cella and again on the east and west pediments Three Goddesses on East Pediment Frieze Cella frieze: low relief, noble procession of Athenian citizens depicted during the Pan Athenaic procession.

Phideas’ Sculptures: 

Phideas’ Sculptures

Dyonisus: 

Dyonisus

Other Acropolis Buildings: 

Other Acropolis Buildings Propylaea: massive gateway Erechtheum: Ionic temple with two porches Caryatids: Porch of the Maidens

Classical Humanism: 

Classical Humanism Belief that “Man is the Measure of All Things” Protagoras. Nobility of human intelligence and action Human ability to understand and control the world. “Secular” humanism is controversial today.

The Classical Style: 

The Classical Style Representing the human figure in motion: turning point for Greek sculptors. Idealized, yet moving toward naturalism

Greek Sculpture: 

Greek Sculpture Kritios Boy: Human figure in motion Classical Style: naturalism and idealism Myron’s Discobolus Riace Warrior Phideas? Praxiteles’ Aphrodite of Cnidos Contrapposto: S curve

Hellenistic Style: 

Hellenistic Style Emotionally charged realism of later Greek sculpture Alexander the Great Persia and Egypt Individuality Lacoon and his Two Sons

Greek Theater: 

Greek Theater Athens: Greek Theater Themes: Power of the gods Course of human destiny Nature of love and justice Dyonisus patron god: wine, revelry and intoxication. Dyonisian festivals

Greek Tragedy: 

Greek Tragedy Open-air theaters or amphitheaters Wealthy citizens paid playwrights and producers Yearly competition Actors in front of the skene Chorus: actors who danced and chanted on the orchestra, the area surrounded by the theatron

Greek Playwrights: 

Greek Playwrights Thespis: One actor Aeschylus: added a second actor and dialogue. Suffering and guilt led to gods Sophocles: Golden Age of Athens Oedipus Rex Hubris Catharsis

Playwrights: 

Playwrights Euripides: realism, social commentary Showed people as they were, gripped by violent passions Medea

Greek Comedy: 

Greek Comedy Humorous portrayal of everyday themes and characters. Aristophanes: Clouds and Lysistrata

Greek Philosophy: 

Greek Philosophy Philosophy: came from Greek’s fascination with rational inquiry. Materialists: substance of which all matter was composed Idealists: evidence of a divine and rational plan for cosmos--Pythagoras Sophists: professional teachers, skeptics—Protagoras. Became cynical.

Socrates: 

Socrates Founded classical Greek philosophy and never wrote a word. Socratic Method Gadfly of Athens—Morals worth more than life itself. “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Trial and death: Tried for religious and moral offenses.

Plato: 

Plato Student of Socrates Wrote Socrates’ dialogues Apology: Socrates’ trial Phaedo: Socrates’ last conversation The Republic: Ideal city-state/ Three parts of soul: reason, moral courage, appetites The Academy

Aristotle: 

Aristotle Challenged Plato’s teachings Tutor for Alexander of Macedonia Ethics:Happiness is found in balance between two extremes: Golden Mean Poetics: Formal pattern of Greek drama. Lyceum

Greek Music: 

Greek Music Music: of the “Muses” Goddesses who inspired creative arts. Lyre Aulos Music could bring about feelings Music lost forever Pythagoras’ intervals: octaves

Hellenistic Age: 

Hellenistic Age Philip of Macedon subdued Greek city-states. Succeeded by son Alexander Alexander loved Greek civilization and spread it throughout his empire in Persia and Egypt Hellenistic: Greek-like

Hellenistic Legacy: 

Hellenistic Legacy Collected great classical manuscripts in libraries. Artists imitated forms and ideas of the Greeks. Playwrights copied Greek theater Euclid: Planets revolve around the sun Established Greek culture as the standard.