Chapter 3 Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit: Chapter 3 Ancient Greece: The Classical Spirit Early Greece Early Greek Poetry: Early Greek Poetry Homeric epics: long narrative poems; heroic deeds; hero who brings pride to country. Iliad and Odyssey: First masterpieces of Western literature.
Heroes: Achilles and Odysseus
Despite man’s frailties, his life is noble Sappho’s Lyric Poetry: Sappho’s Lyric Poetry Lyric poems: brief, expressing feelings, often accompanied by a lyre.
Sappho’s poems expressed her love for her women friends.
Lived her life on the island of Lesbos Art in Early Greece: Art in Early Greece The Archaic period: 650-490 B.C. Progression from the Egyptian models
Naturalism: attempt to represent objects as they appear in nature
Vase painting: red-figure technique: figures left unpainted
Greeks’ range of feelings and actions Sculpture: Sculpture Kouros: free standing nude male youth. Rigid Egyptian poses
Koré: softer or female version. Clothing softened statue The Classical Period: The Classical Period The Classical Period: The Classical Period Opens with Greeks’ victory over Persians at Salamis in 490 B.C.
Golden Age: 480 B.C. and 404 B.C., when Athens was defeated in the Peloponnesian Wars. Culture lasted until death of Alexander the Great.
Polis life: Human nature dictates life in city
Pericles: Delian League
PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003 PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003 PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003 PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003 PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003: PCC Humanities Travel Class Greece and Rome Summer 2003 Women in Classical Athens: Women in Classical Athens Excluded from public affairs
Household duties: organization, supervision and labor.
Hetaera: foreign women who worked as courtesans, entertainers and prostitutes.
Some hetaera highly educated The Greek Temple: The Greek Temple The Parthenon (447 B.C.) Dedicated to Athena
Entablature: decoration of the vertical column and horizontal beam
Orders: Styles of columns
Cella: enclosed inner room of temple
Refinements Erechtheum--Parthenon: Erechtheum--Parthenon How large is the Parthenon?: How large is the Parthenon? What it might have looked like…: What it might have looked like… Parthenon Sculptures: Parthenon Sculptures Phideas: Athena statue in cella and again on the east and west pediments
Three Goddesses on East Pediment
Cella frieze: low relief, noble procession of Athenian citizens depicted during the Pan Athenaic procession. Phideas’ Sculptures: Phideas’ Sculptures Dyonisus: Dyonisus Other Acropolis Buildings: Other Acropolis Buildings Propylaea: massive gateway
Erechtheum: Ionic temple with two porches
Caryatids: Porch of the Maidens
Classical Humanism: Classical Humanism Belief that “Man is the Measure of All Things” Protagoras.
Nobility of human intelligence and action
Human ability to understand and control the world.
“Secular” humanism is controversial today. The Classical Style: The Classical Style Representing the human figure in motion: turning point for Greek sculptors.
Idealized, yet moving toward naturalism Greek Sculpture: Greek Sculpture Kritios Boy: Human figure in motion
Classical Style: naturalism and idealism
Riace Warrior Phideas?
Praxiteles’ Aphrodite of Cnidos
Contrapposto: S curve Hellenistic Style: Hellenistic Style Emotionally charged realism of later Greek sculpture
Alexander the Great Persia and Egypt
Lacoon and his Two Sons Greek Theater: Greek Theater Athens: Greek Theater
Power of the gods
Course of human destiny
Nature of love and justice
Dyonisus patron god: wine, revelry and intoxication. Dyonisian festivals Greek Tragedy: Greek Tragedy Open-air theaters or amphitheaters
Wealthy citizens paid playwrights and producers
Actors in front of the skene
Chorus: actors who danced and chanted on the orchestra, the area surrounded by the theatron Greek Playwrights: Greek Playwrights Thespis: One actor
Aeschylus: added a second actor and dialogue. Suffering and guilt led to gods
Sophocles: Golden Age of Athens
Catharsis Playwrights: Playwrights Euripides: realism, social commentary
Showed people as they were, gripped by violent passions
Medea Greek Comedy: Greek Comedy Humorous portrayal of everyday themes and characters.
Aristophanes: Clouds and Lysistrata Greek Philosophy: Greek Philosophy Philosophy: came from Greek’s fascination with rational inquiry.
Materialists: substance of which all matter was composed
Idealists: evidence of a divine and rational plan for cosmos--Pythagoras
Sophists: professional teachers, skeptics—Protagoras. Became cynical. Socrates: Socrates Founded classical Greek philosophy and never wrote a word.
Gadfly of Athens—Morals worth more than life itself.
“The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Trial and death: Tried for religious and moral offenses. Plato: Plato Student of Socrates
Wrote Socrates’ dialogues
Apology: Socrates’ trial
Phaedo: Socrates’ last conversation
The Republic: Ideal city-state/ Three parts of soul: reason, moral courage, appetites
The Academy Aristotle: Aristotle Challenged Plato’s teachings
Tutor for Alexander of Macedonia
Ethics:Happiness is found in balance between two extremes: Golden Mean
Poetics: Formal pattern of Greek drama.
Lyceum Greek Music: Greek Music Music: of the “Muses” Goddesses who inspired creative arts.
Music could bring about feelings
Music lost forever
Pythagoras’ intervals: octaves Hellenistic Age: Hellenistic Age Philip of Macedon subdued Greek city-states. Succeeded by son Alexander
Alexander loved Greek civilization and spread it throughout his empire in Persia and Egypt
Hellenistic: Greek-like Hellenistic Legacy: Hellenistic Legacy Collected great classical manuscripts in libraries.
Artists imitated forms and ideas of the Greeks.
Playwrights copied Greek theater
Euclid: Planets revolve around the sun
Established Greek culture as the standard.