Different Approaches and Methods

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Different Approaches and Methods:

Different Approaches and Methods

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“ A thousand teachers, a thousand methods” ----Chinese proverbs

Teaching Approach, Strategy, Method and Technique:

Teaching Approach, Strategy, Method and Technique Teaching Approach – is a set of principles, beliefs or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom. It springs from the teachers own philosophy of education, the nature of education, the role of the teacher and that of the student. Teaching Strategy – is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal. Strategy applies to many disparate field such as military strategy, economic strategy, teaching strategy and the like. Teaching Method – is a systematic way of doing something. It implies an orderly logical arrangement of steps. It is more procedural.

Teaching Technique:

Teaching Technique Is a very well-defined procedure used to accomplish a specific activity or task. It is a teachers particular style or trick used to accomplish an immediate objective. Techniques are consistent with given approach, strategy and method.

Examples of Teaching Approaches:

Examples of Teaching Approaches Teacher-centered Learner-centered Subject matter-centered Learner-centered Teacher-dominated Interactive “Banking” Approach Constructivist Disciplinal Integrated Individualistic Collaborative Indirect, guided Direct

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Teacher-centered approach – the teacher is the reliable source of information. Also teacher-dominated. Learner-centered Approach – learner is also an important source. Subject-matter Centered – subject matter gains primacy over that of the learner. Interactive – more student talk and less teacher talk. Constructivist – connecting what is taught to their prior experience. “Banking” Approach – teacher deposits knowledge into the empty minds of students for students to commit to memory.

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Integrated – teacher connects her subject with other subject making it interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary. Disciplinal – limits the teacher in discussing his/her lessons within the boundary of his/her subject. Collaborative – group work, teamwork, partnerships, and group discussions. Individualistic – students work by themselves. Direct – teacher directly tells or shows or demonstrates what is to be taught. Indirect/Guided – learner discovers things for himself and the teacher facilitates.

Other Teaching Approaches Cited in Education:

Other Teaching Approaches Cited in Education Research-based approach – learning are anchored in research findings. Whole-child approach – learns not only academic but as well as emotional, creative, psychological, spiritual, and developmental needs. Metacognitive approach – teaching process brings the learner to the process of thinking about thinking. Problem-based approach – focused on problems. Time is spent in analyzing and solving problems.

Summary:

Summary In summary, approaches vary in the degree of teacher and learner engagement, focus, number of learners involved in the teaching-learning process as shown in the diagram below : Engagement Teacher Learner Focus Subject Matter Learner Number Individual Group

Two Category Based on Student and Teacher Involvement :

T wo Category B ased on Student and T eacher I nvolvement The first category is Direct/Expository Approach Direct Instruction/Lecture Method – aimed at helping students acquire procedural knowledge which is knowledge exercise in the performance of some task. It is also used for lessons that are factual and non-controversial.

Steps of the Direct Method or Lecture Method:

Steps of the Direct Method or Lecture Method Provide the rationale, Demonstrate the skills, Provide guided practice until mastery, Check the understanding and provide feedback, Provide extended practice and transfer, and Asses learning at the end

If you teach facts, principles or laws, the steps are similar to teaching skills:

If you teach facts, principles or laws, the steps are similar to teaching skills Give a short introduction by providing the rationale Present your lesson Develop the lesson by explaining, illustrating it with diagrams if appropriate and/or by giving concrete examples Give applications of the lesson and Check for understanding and provide feedback

Instructional Characteristics:

Instructional Characteristics The strategy is teacher-directed. Emphasis is on the teaching of skill. Each step must be mastered, hence the students gain “how” rather than “what”. It is termed procedural knowledge. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the learning of the entire procedure with no step missed. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors that can be measured accurately. If the lesson is to develop skill in performing five steps of a particular experiment, such as skill can be observed and measured. The level of performance can be assessed from the numbers of steps performed correctly. This is a form of learning through imitations, sometimes termed “behavioral modeling” This can also be used to teach facts, principles, and laws.

Guidelines for Its Effective Use :

Guidelines for Its Effective Use Teaching Skill The student must be given ample time for practice. They must be included in the planning stage since this technique is highly task-oriented and aimed at mastery of every step. The lesson objectives are student-based. Describe the testing situation and specify the level of performance expected. Divide complex skills and understanding into sub skills or into its component steps so they can be taught easily and with precision.

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Design own strategy in teaching each skill which will eventually contribute to the learning of the entire skill. Before the demonstration, carefully rehearse all steps. The steps should be observed and followed. Assign practice for short periods of time, then continue learning by imitating others. Provide feedback and encouragement through praises. Positively motivated, the students will never get tired practicing. Be able to construct good performance-based tests.

Teaching declarative knowledge – facts, principles and laws:

Teaching declarative knowledge – facts, principles and laws Be sure the facts, principles, and laws are correctly, clearly and adequately explained. Use visual aids to concretize abstract principles and laws.inc Illustrate laws and principles with concrete examples. Present facts meaningfully by citing their significance and by connecting them with everyday life.

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2 . Demonstration Method The teacher or an assigned student or group shows how a process is done while the students becomes observers. This approach is employed in presenting lessons that use sophisticated equipment and technical know-how. Materials that are not easily available or expensive are used sparingly in a demonstration. The demonstrator is knowledgeable in preparing the apparatus needed according to the steps to be followed. The rest of the class becomes focused on the activity and concentration on the subject is assured.

Guidelines for Its Effective Use:

Guidelines for Its Effective Use Before The demonstrators must be well-selected. He/She/They must be skilled in operating modern equipment and proficient in undertaking scientific investigations. When planning the activities make sure that the materials are easily available. Likewise, get prepared with possible substitutes. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be used. Demonstrations should be scheduled as to day and class period. The demonstrator must try the activity several times before the real demonstrations for a smooth sequencing of the steps as well as accuracy of the results.

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The observers must be prepared and motivated to ensure concentration throughout the activity. The demonstrators must be ready with on-the-spot revision/s such as alternative steps or substitute materials when needed. Arrange the observers around the demonstration area or at the distance where they will be able to observe fully what is going on. Depending on the kind of demonstration to be undertaken, pointers or questions may be given to focus students attention and avoid irrelevant observations.

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During The place must be quiet in order to sustain the observers attention and interest during the activity. Extreme care must be taken in performing some delicate steps. Precision, timing for every step, and measuring accurately using the standard instrument must be observed. The activity must not be interrupted by unnecessary announcements or noise in the surroundings. They are allowed to take down short notes or record some data which may be analyzed after.

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After Allow some questions which bothered them during the demonstration. The post-demo discussion may necessitate clarifying a step that was not performed well or a set of data missed. An examination of the observed data and all information recorded follows. Have an analysis of trends, patterns or uniform occurrences that can help in arriving at a conclusion. The conclusion or summary must be cooperatively undertaken by the whole class. Asses learning by way of a short test, an oral evaluation or a performance test.

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Advantages The demonstration method follows a systematic procedure, hence students will be able to learn from a well-tired procedure since the demonstrators are selected and adjudged to skilled. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized. Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since the demonstration is supposed to be well-planned in advance. It will not result to trial-and-error learning as what happens with unplanned learning activities. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has been tried before. The value of confidence is developed among the demonstrators for such hands-on demonstrations. Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled among the observers.

Indirect/Guided / Exploratory Approach:

Indirect/Guided / Exploratory Approach Indirect instruction method is best used when the learning process is inquiry based; the result is discovery and the learning context is a problem. This can come as inquiry method , discovery method , problem-solving method and project method. These three methods are not mutually exclusive. The inquiry method may become a problem-solving method when the focus of inquiry is a problem to be solved.

Inquiry Method:

Inquiry Method The core of inquiry is a spontaneous and self-directed exploration. Textbook-dictated procedures do not allow an active probe into the unknown. The inquiry approach sometimes termed as : Discovery Heuristic Problem-solving Is defined simply as a teaching method which is “modeled after the investigative processes of scientist”.

What are the steps in inquiry method ?:

What are the steps in inquiry method ? Define the topic or introduce the question. Guide students plan where and how to gather data, information. They may research on the topic/question by viewing, constructing, reading, designing an experiment, recording observations and interviewing experts. Students present findings through graph, charts, PowerPoint presentation, models and writing.

Instructional Characteristics:

Instructional Characteristics The following are commonly observed characteristics of the discovery/inquiry method: Investigate processes such as inferring, hypothesizing, measuring, predicting, classifying, analyzing and experimenting, formulating conclusions and generalizations are employed. The procedure in gathering information is not prescribed by the teachers. The students are treated as independent learners. The children are highly motivated to search, hence active participation is the best indicator of inquisitiveness. The answers arrived at are genuine products of their own effort. Focused questions before, during, and after are critical ingredients that provide direction and sustain action.

Outcomes of inquiry teaching:

Outcomes of inquiry teaching Its emphasis is on the processes of gathering and processing of information. Its dependence on first hand experience with objects and phenomena occurring in the environment is certainly in agreement with the most often cited theory of Piaget’s on intellectual development. The inquiry approach which predominantly allows some degree of freedom develops initiative and divergent thinking. A deep sense of responsibility is developed when learners are left to manage their own learning, be it pursuit of answers, mastery of content or simply solving a problem that confronts them instantly. Educators strongly believe that facts are concepts that learners discover by themselves become stored as part of their permanent learning. Experiencing success in inquiry-based/ discovery lessons build up the learners feeling of confidence. Participation in inquiry activities strengthens learners’ intellectual capabilities.

How to facilitate Inquiry teaching :

How to facilitate Inquiry teaching Arrange for an ideal room setting. Chairs lined in a semi-circular manner is conducive to clear viewing and east transfers around the area. Choose tools and equipment's that can easily be manipulated. The materials to be used or examined must lend themselves easily to the processes to be employed and the end product desired. The questions/problems to be answered should originate from the learners, followed by the formulation of hypothesis. The procedure should likewise be planned by them. At the completion of the activity, require an evaluation of the steps undertaken as to its effectiveness and the clarity of the results. Above all, the teacher himself or herself should internalize her/his changed role to that of a guide, facilitator, and councilor rather than the traditional authority.

Problem-solving Method:

Problem-solving Method Problem-solving is a teaching strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for information. “ 5 BASIC STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD OR INVESTIGATORY PROCESS ” Sensing and defining the problem Formulating hypothesis Testing the likely hypothesis(by observing, conducting an experiment, collecting and organizing data through normative surveys) Analysis, interpretation and evaluation f evidence Formulating conclusion

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