Jain History Power Point

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JAINISM BEFORE MAHAVIR: 

JAINISM BEFORE MAHAVIR A Presentation by Dr. Vastupal Parikh

Two Beliefs 1. Jain Belief: 

Two Beliefs 1. Jain Belief 1. Jainism is millions of year old. 2. Jains have 24 Tirthankaras - First Adinath & Last Mahavir. 3. Adinath invented agriculture, nomad settlements, system of family, law, art, etc. 4. Adinath achieved nirvana in the Himalayas (Astapada, Kailash).

Two Beliefs 2. Taught in Indian Schools: 

Two Beliefs 2. Taught in Indian Schools 1. Hinduism is an ancient religion 2. Jainism is an off-shoot of Hinduism 3. Mahavir and Buddha started their religions as a protest to Vedic practices in 6th Century BCE.

Historical Facts - 1: 

Historical Facts - 1 JAINISM Roots: Shraman System Basic Belief: No creator God, Six eternal Dravya form Universe Philosophy: Work hard to purify soul and achieve Moksha Origin: Aboriginals of India (Dravidians) ...continued HINDUISM Roots: Vedic System Basic Belief : GOD Generates, Orders and Destroys Universe Philosophy: Pacify GOD and achieve nirvana as His mercy Origin: Aryan tribes from Russian steppes …continued

Historical Facts - 2: 

Historical Facts - 2 Agriculture Begins in India 8500 - 7000 Yrs ago Regionalization Era (Rural) 7000 - 4600 Yrs ago Indus Civilization (Urbanization) 4600 - 3500 Yrs ago Aryan Invasions (Dravids Migrate) 3500 - 3300 Yrs ago Rigvedic Period (Hinduism Begins) 3300 - 3000 Yrs ago Brahmana, Aranyka 3000 – 2800 Yrs ago Upanishad Composed 2800 - 2600 Yrs ago Ganges Valley Invasions 2950 - 2600 Yrs ago Shraman Reforms (Mahavir, Buddha) 2600 - 2500 Yrs ago

Indus Civilization: 

Indus Civilization

Indus Valley Seals: 

Indus Valley Seals

Indus Valley Statues The Ascetic King: 

Indus Valley Statues The Ascetic King

The Ascetic King: 

The Ascetic King The features of the human figures on the Harappan statues are similar to those of the present day Dravidians. This suggest that the Dravidians are the indigenous peoples of India - Jainism and the New Spirituality, by Vastupal Parikh. Peace Publications, 2001 Page166

The Ascetic King: 

The Ascetic King Hindu texts mention that the thick-lipped, broad nosed, dark skinned inhabitants of India built mighty citadels. But they were eventually overwhelmed by the Aryan armies under the banner of the “Hurler of the Thunderbolt” - Indra - The Art of India by Nigel Cawthorne, Laurel Glen Pub. 1997, Pages 11, 14

Indus Civilization: 

Indus Civilization

Aryan Route To Indus: 

Aryan Route To Indus

Historical Facts: 

Historical Facts Rikhavdev Era (Agriculture Begins) 8500 - 7000 Yrs ago Regionalization Era (Rural) 7000 - 4600 Yrs ago Indus Civilization (Urbanization) 4600 - 3500 Yrs ago Aryan Invasions (Dravids Migrate) 3500 - 3300 Yrs ago Rigvedic Period (Hinduism Begins) 3300 - 3000 Yrs ago Brahmana, Aranyka 3000 – 2800 Yrs ago Upanishad Composed 2800 - 2600 Yrs ago Ganges Valley Invasions 2950 - 2600 Yrs ago Shraman Reforms (Mahavir, Buddha) 2600 - 2500 Yrs ago

Time Chart: 

Time Chart RIKHAVDEV PERIOD INDUS VALLEY PERIOD ARYANS ARRIVE MAHAVIR 6500 BCE 8,500 Yrs. ago 2500 BCE 4500 Yrs. ago 1500 BCE 3500 Yrs. ago CHRIST 1000 BCE 3000 Yrs. ago 500 BCE 2500 Yrs. ago 000 2000 Yrs. ago 500 CE 1500 Yrs. ago

Expanded Time Chart: 

Expanded Time Chart Indus Valley Period Aryans Arrive Mahavir 1600 BCE 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 Buddha Ninth Tirthankar - Pushpadanta Nomadic warriors defeat Rikhavites Tenth Tirthankar -Shitalnath Rikhavites flee Eastward along the Ganges Inter-tribal Aryan wars Rigveda composed Brahmana, Aranyaka & Upnishad composed Mahabharat

Dravidian Kingdoms – 700 BCE: 

Dravidian Kingdoms – 700 BCE

Rikhavdev Period Civilization Development: 

Rikhavdev Period Civilization Development Social Order, Family System, Marriage, Law and Order, Justice, Government Built Villages, Towns and Cities Land Cultivation, Arts and Craft, Brahmi Script, Reading & Writing Metallurgy - Gold, Silver, Copper

Rikhavdev Period Philosophical Development: 

Rikhavdev Period Philosophical Development Living Beings have Body and Soul Pure Soul is Bliss, Impure Soul is Misery Soul purification reduces Misery Soul purity requires self-control through Meditation, Yoga & Vows Meditation in seating (Padmasan) or Standing (Kayostarg) Positions

Evolution of Vedic Philosophy: 

Evolution of Vedic Philosophy Early Migration Period (Rigveda) Worshiped powers of Nature (Varuna, Indra, Agni, Surya) Not concerned with the meaning of life. Reference to Rikhavites as ‘Vratyas’, ‘Yogins’, etc. Later Vedic Period (Brahmanas & Aranyakas) Insecurity, skepticism of the mythical powers of Aryan gods. Paved the way for magical sacrificial rites Start of caste (varna) system made Brahmin priests most powerful. …continued

Evolution of Vedic Philosophy: 

Sacrificial rites questioned, Attention to shraman philosophy of karma and sansara. Upnishads document the transition from mythical (gods of Nature, Rigveda) and magical (rituals, Brahmana) thought to the mystical philosophy of salvation. New Hindu Philosophy: Identity of the individual soul ‘atman’ with the soul of the universe ‘brahman’ (tat tvam asi). Idea of rebirth and transmigration. Acceptance of Rikhavdev - renamed Rishbhadev - as Mahadev (later called ‘Shiva’ or Shankar) Evolution of Vedic Philosophy

Comparison Of Cultures: 

Comparison Of Cultures INDUS (Rikhavite) CULTURE SETTLEMENTS: Urban, large brick houses, public sanitation system METALS: Gold, silver, copper, bronze, and lead but iron unknown WEAPONS: Stone/wood weapons of offense but no defensive shields, coats, helmets, etc. ANIMALS: Bulls, cows, elephants but no horses ...continued RIGVEDIC CULTURE SETTLEMENTS: Rural small thatched houses of bamboo METALS: Gold, copper, bronze and iron, silver known but less common WEAPONS: Stone/wood/iron weapons, chariots, and defensive shields, helmets and coats of nail. ANIMALS: Sheep, cows, horses …continued

Comparison Of Cultures: 

Comparison Of Cultures INDUS CULTURE. ART: Well developed Brahmi script and artistic talent in drawing, sculpture, figurines, jewelry, pottery, etc. RELIGION: Means of spiritual development was through meditation, yoga & self-purification. RIGVEDIC CULTURE. ART: No achievements in art and writing skills. Verbal poetry developed in immediate post-Aryan invasion. RELIGION: Worship and invocations to the powers of Nature to bestow spiritual favours. CONCLUSION: Rigvedic culture, although later, was unrelated to the Indus culture and had an independent origin and development.

Aryan March Eastward: 

Aryan March Eastward “Shatpath Brahmana records Aryan March Eastward and founding of Videha to the northeast of Patna by prince Videgha-Mathava. Videgha marched eastward burning Dravidian kingdoms. Translation by J. Eggeling - Sacred Books of the East (1882-1900) “Agni thence went burning along this earth towards the East… and Videgha Mathava followed after him. He (Agni) burnt over (dried up) all these rivers. Now that river, which is called sadanira (modern Gandak) flows from the northern mountains: that one he did not burn over. That one the Brahmins did not cross thinking, ‘it has not been burnt over by Agni Vishvanara. Videgha then said to Agni ‘Where am I to abide?’ ‘To the East of this river be thy abode!’ said he. “Nowadays, however, there are many Brahmins in the East of Sadanira. Brahmins have caused Agni to taste (purified) it through sacrifices. Oh lord Vishvanara, purify thy now the land of Niganthis to the South.”

Sramana Reforms: 

Sramana Reforms “Seven Recorded Attempts in 600 B.C.E. Kassapa Mikkhali Gosala Ajit Kesakambala Pakudha Kacchayana Sanjaya Belathiputta Vardhaman Mahavira 7. Gautama Buddha

Results: 

Results Only two reforms survived Vardhaman Mahavira maintained links with his sramana roots and became the Twenty fourth Tirthankara of JAINISM 2.Gautama Buddha severed ties with his past and became the founder of a new religion - BUDDHISM.

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Jainism and Buddhism have roots in at least 8,500 years old Sraman Philosophy of India’s Pre-Harppan aboriginals (Dravidians) Hinduism developed from Vedic Philosophy of Aryans.

The Myth Continues…: 

The Myth Continues… August 2005 Indian Supreme Court declared that Jainism is just a reformist movement amongst Hindus like Brahamsamajis, Aryasamajis and Lingayats. August 2006 The same court under pressure declared that Jainism is indeed a separate religion. October 2006 Gujarat Govt. passed a legislation announcing Jainism to be a branch of Hinduism. This legislation is being challenged…

The Jain Apathy: 

The Jain Apathy The Supreme court verdict was NOT challenged by any Jain organization or leader Gujarat legislation is challenged not by the Jains but by the Indian Christians

Indian Supreme Court Verdict: 

Indian Supreme Court Verdict 30. This philosophy is to some extent similar to the vedic philosophy explained by Lord Krishna in 'Bhagwat Geeta', where Lord Krishna describes qualities of a perfect human as 'Stithpragya'. 31. In philosophical sense, Jainism is a reformist movement amongst Hindus like Brahamsamajis, Aryasamajis and Lingayats. 34. The Hindu society being based on caste, is itself divided into various minority groups. Each caste claims to be separate from the other. In a caste-ridden Indian society, no section or distinct group of people can claim to be in majority. All are minorities amongst Hindus.

Indian Supreme Court Verdict: 

Indian Supreme Court Verdict 29. There is a very serious debate and difference of opinion between religious philosophers and historians as to whether Jains are of Hindu stock and whether their religion is more ancient than the vedic religion of Hindus. Spiritual philosophy of Hindus and Jains in many respect is different but the quintessence of the spiritual thought of both the religions seems to be the same. It signifies a person who has attained victory over himself by the process of self-purification. 'Jain' is a religious devout who is continuously striving to gain control over his desires, senses and organs to ultimately become master of his own self.