Imogene M King

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Imogene M. King, RN, EdD, FAAN 1923-2007:

Imogene M. King, RN, EdD, FAAN 1923-2007 Goal Attainment Theory Jennifer Hoffman Maryville University

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Imogene M. King was born January 30, 1923

Education:

Education St. John’s Hospital School of Nursing Nursing diploma St. Louis University Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Teachers College of Columbia University Doctor of Education (EdD) degree Southern Illinois University Honorary Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree (King International Nursing Group, n.d., Lavin & Killeen, 2008, & Meleis, 2012, Chapter 12)

King Work History:

King Work History 1945-1952- Clinical Instructor 1952-1958- Instructor & Assistant Director of Nursing 1961-1966- Associate Professor 1966-1968- Assistant Chief 1968-1972- Director of Nursing 1971-1980- Professor 1980-1990- Professor 1990- Honored as Professor Emeritus (KING, n.d., Meleis, 2012, Chapter 12, & Messmer & Palmer, 2008)

King Retirement:

King Retirement World Traveler Speaker Consultant Author Researcher Mentor Advisor (KING, n.d. & Meleis, 2012, chapter 12)

Rationale:

Rationale Intriguing Collaboration of practitioner & patient working together to attain health goals. Control in health management = increased compliance.

King’s Vision:

King’s Vision “My vision is a dream that nurses will be at the center of healthcare delivery systems in the next century” (King, 1997b, p. 16)

Theory Overview:

Theory Overview Evolved mid-1960’s Questions regarding nurses daily practices Attempting to explain what nursing is. (Meleis, 2012, Chapter 12)

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King’s Definition Human Being/Person Social person Rational & sentient Perceive, think, & feel Decisions Alternative actions Wants, needs, & goals Communicate (Meleis, 2012, chapter 12) Basic Needs Health information Care to prevent illness Care when unable to help self (Imogene King, n.d.)

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King's Definition Nursing is “a process that is interactional in nature between two human beings engaged in a human act” Action, reaction, interaction, & transaction (Meleis, 2012, chapter 12)

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King’s Definition Health “Dynamic state in the life cycle of a person which implies adjustment to stressors in the internal and external environment through optimum use of resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living” (Meleis, 2012, chapter 12)

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King’s Definition Environment Background for human interactions Internal Transforms energy External Informal & formal Patient’s environment includes the nurse (Imogene King, n.d. & Meleis, 2012, chapter 12)

Nursing and Health:

Nursing and Health “Historically, the goal of nursing has been to assist individuals, families, and groups in communities to attain, maintain, and regain health. If that was not possible, nurses helped individuals die with dignity” (King, 1990, p. 125)

Theory Overview:

Theory Overview Goal attainment theory represents achieving & measuring outcomes To determine how effective the nursing care has been (King, 1990,1997b,1999) Communicate, set goals together, action plan. Taking into account external factors such as stress, time, & space (Imogene King, n.d. & Meleis, 2012, chapter 12)

Critique:

Critique Purpose Overall goal is health Individuals, groups, & society (King, 1992, 1994, 1996) Affected by communication, interaction, transaction, & goals (King, 1990, 1994 & Meleis, 2012, chapter 12) Verbal and non-verbal communication (King, 1992, 1999)

Concepts 3 Interacting Systems:

Concepts 3 Interacting Systems The Personal System Perception Self Body Image Growth & Development Time Space The Social System Organization Power, authority, status Goal attainment Decision making Control The Interpersonal System Role Human Interaction Communication Coping Transactions Stress (King, 1992 & Meleis, 2012, Chapter 12)

Concepts Interacting Systems:

Concepts Interacting Systems All 3 systems are interrelated as identified when observing concrete nursing functions Learn about individual self and interactions with others (King, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997a, 1999, & 2006)

Concepts Transaction Model:

Concepts Transaction Model Leads to goal attainment Directly observed Implies respect Values, aspirations, & wants (King, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997a, 1999, & 2006)

Nursing Process:

Nursing Process Nursing process as a Method Nursing process as a theory A system of interrelated actions A system of interrelated concepts Assessment Perception, communication, & interaction of patient & nurse Planning Decision making about goals Agree on the means to attain goals Implementation Transaction made Evaluation Goal Attained??? If not then start over (King, 1992, 1996, 1997a, 2006)

Critique:

Critique Relationships Theory looks at the relationship between the nurse & patient. Using verbal and nonverbal communication All humans are equal in worth

Critique:

Critique Structure Human to human interaction Goal making Plans to achieve goals Empowering patients Goal attainment outcomes Measure of nursing care

Critique:

Critique Assumptions Humans interact within environment Patient actively participates goal of satisfaction & health Perceptions, goals, needs, & values All aspects discussed Ideas of health may be different (Meleis, 2012, Chapter 12)

Critique:

Critique Clarity Clear Well defined Generalizability High Accessibility Broad

Contributions:

Contributions Moved away from medical model Influence is recognized globally S weden Canada Japan Thailand Great impact Research Nursing curriculum Administration processes Daily practices

Contributions:

Contributions Encouraged advancement Many publications; books, articles, research studies Extremely committed Very influential

Theory/Practice Link:

Theory/Practice Link Elderly patient with CVA- King, 1983 Patient with renal disease- King, 1984 Caring for comatose patients- King, 1986 Caring for adults with diabetes- Husband, 1988 Family & children with chronic illness- Frey, 1989 Record system in case management- Sowell & Fuszard, 1989 Ambulatory care, cancer patients-Porter, 1991 Psychiatric nursing- Schreiber, 1991 NICU care- Norris & Hoyer, 1993 Transforming care of 5 elderly women in nursing home- Woods, 1994 A framework for managed care- Hampton, 1994 Case management- Sowell & Meadows, 1994 Quality care- Sowell & Lowenstein, 1994 Quality of life- King, 1994 A framework for hospital care- Messmer, 1995 Geriatric care- Rooke, 1995 Caring for women with hospitalized preterm infants- Viera& Rossi, 2000 And the list can go on and on (King, 1996, 1997a, 1997b, & Meleis, 2012, chapter 12)

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Imogene M. King died January 24, 2007

References:

References Imogene King. (n.d.) Nursing theory. Retrieved from http://nursing- theory.org/nursing-theorist/imogene-king.php King, I.M. (1990). Health as the goal for nursing. Nursing Science Quarterly, 3 (3), 123-128. King, I.M. (1992). King’s theory of goal attainment. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5 (1), 19-26. King, I.M. (1994). Quality of life and goal attainment. Nursing Science Quarterly, 7 (1), 29-32. King, I.M. (1996). The theory of goal attainment in research and practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 9 (2), 61-66. King, I.M. (1997a). King’s theory of goal attainment in practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10 (4), 180-185. King, I.M. (1997b). Reflections of the past and a vision for the future. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10 (1), 15-16. King, I.M. (1999). A theory of goal attainment: philosophical and ethical implications. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12 (4), 292-296. King, I.M. (2006). A systems approach in nursing administration structure, process, and outcome. Nurs Admin Q, 30(2), 100-104. King International Nursing Group. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kingnursing.org Meleis, A.I. (2012). Theoretical nursing development and progress (5 th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Messmer, P. & Palmer, J. (2008). In honor of Imogene M. King. Retrieved from http://www.reflectionsonnursingleadership.org