REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Presented by: Jareleny D. Nava 1

What is a review of literature?:

What is a review of literature ? A literature is a "review" of " the literature" on a topic. What does that mean? " Review" usually means an overview summarizing major parts and bringing them together to build a picture of what's out there . Different fields of study (and different professors) will have different standards on whether a review is supposed to be more of a straightforward summary or if it is supposed to have a deep analysis and discussion. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2

What is a review of literature?:

What is a review of literature ? "The Literature " means the major writings - especially scholarly writings - on the topic. Depending on your field "the literature" can include all sorts of things: journal articles, books, published essays, government reports, and so on. The main thing is that "the literature" is the body of scholarly, professional information that is used by professionals and scholars working on that topic area . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3

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Related literature includes research findings, published or unpublished theories and principles formulated by experts or authorities in some field or discipline; and ideas or opinions of experts contained in books, pamphlets, magazines and periodicals . It should be written in terms of the purpose of the study. It should give more weight to studies considered more authoritative as evaluated and should give reference to primary rather that secondary sources . It should be organized thematically to conform with the specific problems. It should be synthesized such that evidence from all the studies reviewed would get an overall understanding of the state of knowledge in the problem area . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 4

BOOKS:

Comprise a central part of any bibliography. Advantage -material published generally is of good quality and the findings are integrated with other research to form a coherent body of knowledge. Disadvantage -material is not completely up to date, as it can take a few years between the completion of a work and publication in the form of a book. Search for books in your area of interest, prepare a final list, locate these books in the libraries or borrow from other sources. Examine their content, if contents are not found to be relevant to your topic, delete it from your reading list . REVIEW OF LITERATURE BOOKS 5

JOURNALS:

Journals provide you with the most up-to-date information, even though there is a gap of two to three years between the completion of a research project and the publication in a journal. As with books, you need to prepare a list of journals for identifying literature relevant to your study. This can be done as follows: - locate the hard copies of the journal that are appropriate to your study; - use the internet - look at the index of research abstracts in the relevant field to identify and read the articles . REVIEW OF LITERATURE JOURNALS 6

A literature review is a summary of previous research on a topic. :

A literature review is a summary of previous research on a topic. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7

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Advantages of Review of Literature: It helps the researcher look for possible theories, concepts or principles to support his investigation. It is essential in formulating a sound research title, hypotheses, assumptions, etc. It enlightens the researcher as to the direction of the study. It proves that the study is researchable and possesses novelty. It helps to identify the statistical instrument to be used in the study. It serves as a guide to writing the findings, conclusions and recommendations . REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8

Why do a Literature Review?:

The purpose of a literature review is to help you explain how the question to be investigated fits into the larger picture and why you have approached the topic the way you have. This section of a scholarly report allows the reader to be brought up to date regarding the state of research in the field and familiarizes him or her to any contrasting perspectives and viewpoints on the topic . REVIEW OF LITERATURE Why do a Literature Review ? 9

How do you write a Literature Review?:

Summarize and explain what research has been done on the topic, citing the sources as you mention them. Point out the different ways researchers have treated the topic . Point out any connections between the sources especially where one source built upon prior study . Explain how this past work fits together to make your research question significant. Your literature review should present your synthesis of previous research and lay the foundation for understanding your research and appreciating its value. REVIEW OF LITERATURE How do you write a Literature Review ? 10

Guides to preparing the review of literature:

Guides to preparing the review of literature You may need to visit a number of libraries for articles related to your investigation. At the library, look into the card catalogs for titles of articles, books, monographs and if necessary, ask the help of the librarian. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 11

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3. Index cards can help you organize your materials. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Author: Juan Dela Cruz Publisher : ISPSC Press Book: Educational Planing and Devt . Place: Ilocos Sur Page: 312-315 Year: 2001 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12

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Author: Juan Dela Cruz Year: 2001 Types: MA Thesis Page : 312-315 College/ University: Ilocos Sur Politechnic State College Place: Tagudin , Ilocos Sur ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ REVIEW OF LITERATURE 13

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4. Refrain from copying entire chapters without proper documentation or acknowledgements . Plagiarism is punishable by law. The researcher as a second party According to Dela Cruz…(1999) Dela Cruz ( 1999)averred that… … the intrusion of advanced technology and the shipting of civilization into the “ third wave” describe by Alvin Toffler as the “ Information Age and Knowledge Revolution” paves the way for making education an instrument to facilitate change. ( Dela Cruz, 1999) REVIEW OF LITERATURE 14

The researcher as a third party:

The researcher as a third party According to Dela Cruz, as cited by Palpalatoc (1999)… Dela Cruz quoted Palpalatoc (1999) who averred that… … the intrusion of advanced technology and the shipting of civilization into the “ third wave” describe by Alvin Toffler as the “ Information Age and Knowledge Revolution” paves the way for making education an instrument to facilitate change. ( Dela Cruz cited by Palpalatoc , 1999) REVIEW OF LITERATURE 15

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5. Make a related study on the needs and relevance of your investigation. Fraenkel , at.al., (1996) outlined the steps for taking notes: Problem Hypotheses Procedures Findings conclusions REVIEW OF LITERATURE 16

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Author: Juan Dela Cruz Year: 2003 Types: MA Thesis Page : College/ University: Ilocos Sur Politechnic State College Place: Tagudin , Ilocos Sur Problem: _____________________________________________________________ Hypotheses: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Procedure: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Findings: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Conclusions: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Comments: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17

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6. If you wish to combine professional and related studies, make a theme of your review based on the important variables of the study. A thematic approach to writing a review of related literature makes it logical, systematic and convenient to the researcher. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 18

Example:

Example Research title: Determinants of teaching Performance of Secondary School English Teachers Theme of the Review Profiles of high school English teachers Level of teaching performance Multi-media and instructional materials Methods or strategies and techniques for teaching English Competencies of teachers in communication skills Work attitudes of teachers 19

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