HIS104 Lecture05

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THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Greek historian Polybius asked “Who is so thoughtless and lazy that he does not want to know in what way and with what kind of government the Romans, in less than 53 years, conquered nearly the entire inhabited world and brought it under their rule – an achievement previously unheard of?” Polybius watched as Rome became a world power

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Land Subtropical climate Small rivers (mostly un-navigable) Apennine Mountains (a chain of the Alps) protect Italy from the north Fertile plains of Latium and Campania Tiber River

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The People Etruscans Celts (Gauls) Romans Romulus and Remus Greeks

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Roman Conquest of Italy Tarquin the Proud establishes Republic in 509BC Celts sack Rome in 390BC Romans rebuild from 390-290BC Reorganize their military into the Legion Began to conquer outlying regions (Samnites, Etruscans)

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Roman Conquest of Italy SHARED degrees of Roman citizenship with conquered Latin Allies received full citizenship Conquered regions received partial citizenship The Roman Roads (All Roads Lead to Rome)

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Roman State Genius in Politics and Law Patricians dominate politics Plebeians are the common people Free citizens with a voice in politics Senate and several other legislative bodies

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Law Civil Law (ius civile) Law of the Peoples (ius gentium) Natural Law (ius naturale)

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Struggle of the Orders 494 BC – Plebeians begin to challenge the patricians for political power 445 BC – Patricians pass the lex Canuleia Allows for intermarriage

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Struggle of the Orders Law of the Twelve Tables 287 BC – lex Hortensia Applied laws evenly to plebeians and patricians Collectively this is the Plebian Victories

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Expansion In 282 BC, Rome begins to expand into southern Italy Between 282 and 262 BC, Rome conquers or peacefully colonizes all of Italy Between 261 and 146 BC, Rome conquers the known world

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Expansion Rome’s main enemy was Carthage First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) Second Punic War (218 to 202 BC) Hannibal – Crosses the Alps Scipio Africanus – Roman General Battle of Zama, 202 BC

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Expansion Third Punic War Scipio Aemilianus Battle of Carthage, 146 BC Scipio conquers Spain Scipio conquers Macedonia (Greece)

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Values and Greek Culture Cato the Elder (234-149 BC) paterfamilias Attorney, politician Slave Owner Old Roman Religion

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Values and Greek Culture Slavery Slaves are peoples conquered during Punic Wars Slaves do most of the productive work in Rome Slaves make life of luxury possible

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Roman Values and Greek Culture Scipio Aemilianus Destroyer of Carthage Conqueror of Spain Brought Greek Culture and Urban life to the Roman Empire

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Economy devastated Hannibal destroyed northern agriculture Soldiers forced to sell their land Latifundia – large estates Veterans move to cities – become urban poor Landless veterans can no longer serve in military

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Tiberius Gracchus Attempts to reform system to benefit poor, landless veternas Assassinated by Senators

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Gaius Gracchus Picked up his brothers efforts Assassinated by Senators (along with 3000 of his followers)

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Gaius Marius Picked up where Gracchus brothers left off Recruited landless veterans into his PRIVATE army

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Marius vs. Sulla Marius forces Senate to give him command Sulla attacks Rome to recover command

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Marius vs. Sulla Sulla is Senate’s General, but looks like villain to Roman people Sulla marches off to fight war in East Marius launches Civil War in Rome Marius dies natural death, Sulla wins Sulla declares himself dictator

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Late Republic Sulla makes honest efforts to restore Republic – they fail Spartacus – Slave Revolt Marcus Crassus Pompey Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) First Triumvirate

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The First Triumvirate Crassus dies in 53 BC Caesar and Pompey distrust each other Caesar overthrows Pompey

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS Caesar Launches Land Reform to put poor landless veterans (among other poor) on unused public lands Begins to eliminate distinctions between Italians and Provincials (Citizenship in conquered territories) Looks at North Western Europe as future of Rome Overthrown in 44 BC

THE ROMANS: 

THE ROMANS The Second Triumvirate Octavian Marc Antony Lepidus Antony and Cleopatra Battle of Actium Octavian named Augustus

LECTURE 6: 

LECTURE 6 Lecture 6

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