teams and team work

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Discusses the types, nature,size, composition of teams and the elements of a good team.

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TEAM AND TEAM WORK : 

TEAM AND TEAM WORK BY DR JANEFRANCIS I. DURU B.A, MPA, PhD, MNIM, ACIPM janeduru@yahoo.com 0803 3210968

Course Objectives : 

Course Objectives At the end of the course, participants should be able to do the following: Explain the term team & the types of team. Discuss team nature. Explain team size, composition and selection. Discuss the four elements of a good team Discuss the five stages of team development.

What is a Team? : 

What is a Team? “A team as a set of people selected to work together to achieve a common goal within a specified period” “A team is a group organized to work together to accomplish a set of objectives that cannot be achieved effectively by individuals”

What is a Team? (cont) : 

What is a Team? (cont) “No organisation can function without teams. Even a sole practitioner, with the exception of a hermit on a desert island, is dependent on a network of collaborative relationships.” - Peter Honey, Teams and Teamwork

Team Purpose : 

Team Purpose The purpose for creating teams is to provide a framework that will increase the ability of employees to participate in planning, problem solving and decision making to better serve customers. In other words, teams are intended to improve organizational effectiveness.

Team Purpose(cont) : 

Team Purpose(cont) Team makes for employee involvement and participation. Increased participation promotes: better understanding of decisions, more support for and participation in implementation plans, increased contribution to problem solving and decision making, and more ownership of decisions, processes, and changes.

Team Purpose(cont) : 

Team Purpose(cont) Teams are created for both long term and short term purposes. Long term planning and operational team include: - a product development team, - an executive leadership team, - a departmental team.

Team Purpose (cont) : 

Team Purpose (cont) Short term teams might include: - a team to develop an employee on boarding process, - a team to plan the annual company party, - a team to respond to a specific customer problem or complaint.

Nature of Teams : 

Nature of Teams Teams may be: Functional or cross-functional Interdependent or independent Interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary

Functional or Cross-functional Team : 

Functional or Cross-functional Team Functional or departmental team is group of people from the same work area or department who meet on a regular basis to analyze customer needs, solve problems, provide members with support, promote continuous improvement, and share information.

Cross-functional or Cross Departmental Team : 

Cross-functional or Cross Departmental Team This is a group of people pulled together from across departments or job functions to deal with a specific product, issue, customer, problem, or to improve a particular process.

Interdependent Team : 

Interdependent Team In interdependent team, team members specialize in different tasks, no significant task can be accomplished without the help of others and the success of every individual is inextricably bound to the success of the whole team.

Independent Team : 

Independent Team In independent team, members perform basically the same actions individually. The success or failure of a member has no direct effect on the performance of the other member. However, they help each other by offering advice or practice time, by providing moral support, or by helping in the background during a busy time, but each individual's success is primarily due to each individual's own efforts.

Interdisciplinary Team : 

Interdisciplinary Team Interdisciplinary team approach involves all members of the team working together towards the same goal. In an interdisciplinary team approach, there can often be role blending by members of the core team, who may take on tasks usually filled by other team members.

Multidisciplinary Team : 

Multidisciplinary Team Multidisciplinary team involve several professionals who independently treat various aspects of an issue focusing on the aspects in which they specialize. The problems that are being treated may or may not relate to other aspects being addressed by individual team members.

Team Size : 

Team Size The optimal size of teams will vary depending on the task at hand. We have small, medium and large teams. There sizes are: Small team: 5 -10 members Medium: 11 – 20 members Large team: 21 – 30 members

Team Composition : 

Team Composition Teams normally have members with complementary skills and generate synergy through a coordinated effort which allows each member to maximize his or her strengths and minimize his or her weaknesses.

Team Composition (cont) : 

Team Composition (cont) All teams will have an element of homogeneity and heterogeneity. The more homogeneous the team, the more cohesive it will be, the more heterogeneous the team, the greater the differences in perspective and increased potential for creativity, but also the greater potential for conflict.

Team Composition (cont) : 

Team Composition (cont) A well-rounded team includes a mix of people and skills. The team should include: Some individuals who intimately understand the current process (experts – could be at any level in the organization) Some individuals who actively use the process and work closely with customers (including union involvement when applicable) Some technical wizards Some individuals who are completely objective toward the process and outcome (consultants may fall into this category) Customers of the process (when possible) and suppliers (those people who are involved with the process at the boundaries) Some individuals who are not familiar with your process (someone who brings a fresh perspective and outlook to the team) Source: Prosci

Selection of Team Members : 

Selection of Team Members Selection Criteria: Creativity and open-mindedness Good team players Well Respected among peers, stakeholders, and other business leaders Balance qualifications with commitment to team philosophy Align to team structure and roles

Types of Teams : 

Types of Teams There are two major types of team in the workplace: Task or work team Self-managed team

Task or Work Team : 

Task or Work Team A task team is a group of people selected to achieve a specific purpose, usually for a defined period of time. Examples of this type of team are: project team safety and environmental team, reform team, virtual team, health team, sports team etc.

Task or Work Team(cont) : 

Task or Work Team(cont) Members of this team might belong to different groups or department, but receive assignment on activities for the same task, thereby allowing outsiders to view them as a single unit. Normally, a manager acts as the team leader and is responsible for defining the goals, methods, and functioning of the team.

Self-managed Team : 

Self-managed Team A self-managed team is a group of people who gradually assume responsibility for self-direction in all aspects of work. The main idea of the self-managed team is that the leader does not operate with positional authority.

Self-managed Team(cont) : 

Self-managed Team(cont) In self-managed team, the manager delegates specific responsibility and decision-making authority to the team itself, in the hope that the group will make better decisions than any individual.

Self-managed Team(cont) : 

Self-managed Team(cont) Neither a manager nor the team leader makes independent decisions in the delegated responsibility area. Decisions are typically made by consensus or by voting in successful self-managed teams.

Five Essential Teams Every Organization Needs : 

Five Essential Teams Every Organization Needs There are five work teams that every organization needs . These are: Leadership Team Safety and Environmental Team. Motivation or Employee Morale Team Culture and Communication Team Employee Wellness Team

Elements of a Good Team : 

Elements of a Good Team A good and effective team should have the following elements: Team Identity Team Mission Statement Team Vision Statement Team Success Criteria

Team Identity : 

Team Identity This is a characteristic name that stands out as representation of the team’s vision, purpose, and/or strategic imperatives.

Team Mission Statement : 

Team Mission Statement A team mission statement is a simple statement of purpose known by every member of the team. It - Provides a "reason for being". Provides clarity and focus and makes choices. Is clear and concise. Is agreed by the wider organisation.

Team Vision Statement : 

Team Vision Statement A team vision statement expresses the destination of the team in a way that builds commitment to it. It - Creates a sense of desire and builds commitment. Paints the ideal future. Is in line with the team's values.

Team Success Criteria : 

Team Success Criteria Team Success Criteria lets the teams know when they have achieved what they have set out to do and are - Limited in number to those measures which will drive overall success of the project. Specific and measurable - you know when they have been achieved. Challenging, yet achievable. Meeting them gives a real feeling of achievement.

Characteristics of an Effective Team : 

Characteristics of an Effective Team Purpose: Members proudly share a sense of why the team exists and are invested in accomplishing its mission and goals. Priorities: Members know what needs to be done next, by whom, and by when to achieve team goals. Roles: Members know their roles in getting tasks done and when to allow a more skillful member to do a certain task. Decisions: Authority and decision-making lines are clearly understood. Conflict: Conflict is dealt with openly and is considered important to decision-making and personal growth.

Characteristics of an Effective Team (contd) : 

Characteristics of an Effective Team (contd) Personal traits: members feel their unique personalities are appreciated and well utilized. Norms: Group norms for working together are set and seen as standards for every one in the groups. Effectiveness: Members find team meetings efficient and productive and look forward to this time together. Success: Members know clearly when the team has met with success and share in this equally and proudly. Training: Opportunities for feedback and updating skills are provided and taken advantage of by team members.

Five Stages of Team Development : 

Five Stages of Team Development A team goes through five stages of development . According to Bruce Tuckman these are -: Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning/Ending

Team Development- 1st Stage : 

Team Development- 1st Stage Forming Stage The Forming stage involves the introduction of team members. Members are likely to be influenced by the expectations and desires they bring with them, and will be keen to understand how the group will operate.

Team Development- 2nd Stage : 

Team Development- 2nd Stage Storming Stage Team members at this stage will have different opinions as to how the team should operate. The group is likely to be showing signs of conflict and as well as lively debates and discussions. They will be 'experimenting' and concerned with how they work together.

Team Development- 2nd Stage (cont) : 

Team Development- 2nd Stage (cont) The storming phase is a difficult one for the team. However, the best teams will understand the conflict, actively listen to each other, and navigate an agreed way forwards.  Other teams may disintegrate as they bolster their own opinions to weather the storms of the group.

Team Development- 3rd Stage : 

Team Development- 3rd Stage Norming Stage During this phase, team members are 'settling down' and starting to feel more comfortable with working with each other. They are also able to reconcile their own opinions with the greater needs of the team and emerge with an agreed method of operating. Co-operation & collaboration replace the conflict and mistrust of the previous stage.

Team Development- 4th Stage : 

Team Development- 4th Stage Performing Stage This is the final phase.  The emphasis is now on reaching the team goals, rather than working on team process. Relationships are settled, and team members are likely to build loyalty towards each other. The team is able to manage more complex tasks, and cope with greater change.

Team Development- 5th Stage : 

Team Development- 5th Stage Adjourning Stage This is the disbanding stage. It is a test of how well a team has worked together. If there has been great camaraderie and the team has produced great results, the team is likely to feel great sadness and loss at breaking up. Often successful teams once disbanded, keep in touch afterwards, and certainly feel a bond when meeting up in the future.

Team Development (cont) : 

Team Development (cont) Not every team moves through these stages in order and various activities such as adding a new team member can send the team back to earlier stages. The length of time necessary for progressing through these stages depends on the experience of the members, the support the team receives and the knowledge and skill of the team members.

Five Characteristics of A Great Team : 

Five Characteristics of A Great Team A great team will have: Members sharing leadership responsibility and rotating other roles as needed. All participating in idea generation, problem solving, and decision-making. Members showing support, respect, and trust for one another. All taking actions and doing work that is necessary to reach team goals. Members managing conflict by confronting issues and inappropriate behaviors.

Guidelines for Effective Team Membership: : 

Guidelines for Effective Team Membership: Contribute ideas and solutions Recognize and respect differences in others Value the ideas and contributions of others Listen and share information Ask questions and get clarification Participate fully and keep your commitments Be flexible and respect the partnership created by a team - strive for the "win-win" Have fun and care about the team and the outcomes.

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