From Search Engines to Question Answering Systems9

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Slide1: 

FROM SEARCH ENGINES TO QUESTION-ANSWERING SYSTEMS Lotfi A. Zadeh Computer Science Division Department of EECS UC Berkeley BISC Seminar, UC Berkeley September 23, 2003 URL: http://www-bisc.cs.berkeley.edu URL: http://zadeh.cs.berkeley.edu/ Email: Zadeh@cs.berkeley.edu

Slide3: 

In moving further into the age of machine intelligence and automated reasoning, we have reached a point where we can speak, without exaggeration, of systems which have a high machine IQ (MIQ). The Web and especially search engines—with Google at the top—fall into this category. In the context of the Web, MIQ becomes Web IQ, or WIQ, for short. PREAMBLE

WEB INTELLIGENCE: 

WEB INTELLIGENCE Existing search engines have many remarkable capabilities. However, what is not among them is the deduction capability—the capability to synthesize an answer to a query by drawing on bodies of information which reside in various parts of the knowledge base.

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED A question-answering system is by definition a system which has deduction capability. One of the principal goals of Web intelligence is that of evolving search engines into question-answering systems. Achievement of this goal requires a quantum jump in the WIQ of existing search engines.

BASIC PROBLEM: 

BASIC PROBLEM identification of query-relevant information relevance-ranking of query-relevant information question-answering system search engine deduction from query-relevant information meta-deduction +

QUANTUM JUMP IN WIQ: 

QUANTUM JUMP IN WIQ Can a quantum jump in WIQ be achieved through the use of existing tools such as the Semantic Web and ontology-centered systems--tools which are based on bivalent logic and bivalent-logic-based probability theory?

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED It is beyond question that, in recent years, very impressive progress has been made through the use of such tools. But, a view which is advanced in the following is that bivalent-logic- based methods have intrinsically limited capability to address complex problems which arise in deduction from information which is pervasively ill-structured, uncertain and imprecise.

WORLD KNOWLEDGE: 

WORLD KNOWLEDGE The major problem is World Knowledge

WHAT IS WORLD KNOWLEDGE?: 

WHAT IS WORLD KNOWLEDGE? world knowledge is acquired through experience and education examples usually it is hard to find parking near the campus between 9 and 5 big cars are safer than small cars few professors are rich

WORLD KNOWLEDGE AND THE WEB KEY POINTS: 

WORLD KNOWLEDGE AND THE WEB KEY POINTS world knowledge plays a pivotal role in human cognition in particular, world knowledge forms the basis for disambiguation, decision-making, deduction and search specific: Helsinki is the capital of Finland general: Icy roads are slippery

WORLD KNOWLEDGE: EXAMPLES: 

WORLD KNOWLEDGE: EXAMPLES specific: if Robert works in Berkeley then it is likely that Robert lives in or near Berkeley if Robert lives in Berkeley then it is likely that Robert works in or near Berkeley generalized: if A/Person works in B/City then it is likely that A lives in or near B precisiated: Distance (Location (Residence (A/Person), Location (Work (A/Person) isu near protoform: F (A (B (C)), A (D (C))) isu R

CONTINUED: 

the web is, in the main, a repository of specific world knowledge Semantic Web and related systems serve to enhance the performance of search engines by adding to the web a collection of relevant fragments of world knowledge the problem is that much of world knowledge, and especially general world knowledge, consists of perceptions CONTINUED

CONTINUED: 

perceptions are intrinsically imprecise imprecision of perceptions stands in the way of representing the meaning of perceptions through the use of conventional bivalent-logic-based languages to deal with perceptions and world knowledge, new tools are needed of particular relevance to enhancement of web intelligence are Precisiated Natural Language (PNL) and Protoform Theory (PFT) CONTINUED

Slide15: 

NEW TOOLS CN IA PNL CWP + + computing with numbers computing with intervals precisiated natural language computing with words and perceptions PTp CTP: computational theory of perceptions PFT: protoform theory PTp: perception-based probability theory THD: theory of hierarchical definability CTP THD PFT probability theory PT

LIMITATIONS OF SEARCH ENGINES TEST QUERIES: 

LIMITATIONS OF SEARCH ENGINES TEST QUERIES How many Ph.D.’s in computer science were produced by European universities in 1996? Age of the President of Finland? Name of the King of Finland? Largest port in Switzerland? Smallest port in Canada? Number of lakes in Finland?

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE): 

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE) distance between largest city in Spain and largest city in Portugal: failure largest city in Spain: Madrid (success) largest city in Portugal: Lisbon (success) distance between Madrid and Lisbon (success)

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE): 

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE) population of largest city in Spain: failure largest city in Spain: Madrid, success population of Madrid: success

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE): 

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE) smallest port in Canada: failure Searched the web for smallest port Canada.  Results 1 - 10 of about 77,100. Search took 0.43 seconds. [PDF]Canada’s Smallest Satellite: The Canadian Advanced Nanospace ... File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTML ... leading the design, development, testing, and operations of Canada’s smallest satellites having ... two imager lenses and the information and power test port. ... cubesat.calpoly.edu/reference/canx_paper.pdf - Similar pages Bw Poco Inn And Suites in Port Coquitlam, Canada ... 1000mt N//Bustop Crnr Coast Meridan/Lougheed Hwy Bus Coquitlam Taxi/Port Coquitlam/2km W ... Of Largest Meeting Room - 3420 Sq Ft Capacity Of Smallest Meeting Room ... www.travel-hotels-europe.co.uk/hotels/ dist5/175892/moreinfo.htm - 9k - Cached - Similar pages

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Ramada Hotel & Conference in Edmonton, Canada ... Coffee Direct Dial Telephone Hair Dryer Iron/Ironing Board Modem/Data Port Connection On ... Of Largest Meeting Room - 9877 Sq Ft Capacity Of Smallest Meeting Room ... www.travel-hotels-europe.co.uk/hotels/ dist4/141937/moreinfo.htm - 10k - Cached - Similar pages [ More results from www.travel-hotels-europe.co.uk ] Port Alberni, Canada Hotel Information, Rate Comparison: Direct ... Port Alberni, Canada, featured hotel: Best Western Barclay ... refurbished rooms centrally located in port alberni 87 ... 3105 sq ft capacity of smallest meeting room ... www.hotels-shopper.com/CA/YPB.html - 35k - Cached - Similar pages Port Dover, Ontario Canada bed and breakfasts - in top 10% in ... ... Heritage Homestead Bed and Breakfast - Simcoe, Ontario, Canada, ... Lake Erie’s ports, including Port Dover just ... the original builder) is the smallest, though its ... www.bbontario.com/heritagehomestead.cfm - 14k - Cached - Similar pages

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Canada / New England Port Cities Philipsburg, St. Maarten. Half-French/half-Dutch and wholly delightful St. Maarten is the smallest territory in the world to be shared by two sovereign states. ... 164.109.173.140/destinations/ports/na_saa.htm - 5k - Cached - Similar pages Sealetter Cruise Port Review: Do-It-Yourself Victoria BC Canada ... arrives at Vancouver Island, at a port called Swartz ... the grand architecture of Canadian Pacific hotels across Canada. ... in the day when the crowds are smallest. ... www.sealetter.com/Jun-98/doitvict.html - 22k - Cached - Similar pages Best Western Toronto Airport in Mississauga, Canada ... Accessible Iron/Ironing Board Microwave - Upon Request Modem/Data Port Connection Pay-Per ... Of Largest Meeting Room - 2000 Sq Ft Capacity Of Smallest Meeting Room ... www.world-stay.com/hotels/en/dist4/209801/moreinfo.htm - 9k - Cached - Similar pages

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE): 

TEST QUERY (GOOGLE) largest port in Switzerland: failure Searched the web for largest port Switzerland.  Results 1 - 10 of about 215,000. Search took 0.18 seconds. Sponsored Links Virtual Switzerland Concierge, tourist and travel information. Zurich offices. www.weequalize.com/ Interest: See your message here... THE CONSULATE GENERAL OF SWITZERLAND IN CHINA - SHANGHAI FLASH N ... ... 1993, is one of the largest port constructions in ... rear basis of the deepwater port, bearing comprehensive ... Consulate General of Switzerland for business related ... www.sinoptic.ch/shanghaiflash/2003/200303.htm - 20k - Sep 2, 2003 - Cached - Similar pages

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED EMBASSY OF SWITZERLAND IN CHINA - CHINESE BUSINESS BRIEFING N° ... EMBASSY OF SWITZERLAND. ... Tianjin opens container shipping route to Europe Tianjin Port, the largest port city in north China, opened a direct container shipping ... www.sinoptic.ch/cbb/2003/cbb030224-030302.htm - 38k - Sep 2, 2003 - Cached - Similar pages [ More results from www.sinoptic.ch ] Andermatt, Switzerland Discount Hotels - Cheap hotel and motel ... ... people do, and you'll get the quaint stereotype of Switzerland that the ... Although GOTHENBURG is Scandinavia's largest port, shipbuilding has long since taken a ... www.eztrip.com/ANDERMATT_CH_INTL.html - 16k - Cached - Similar pages Port Washington personals online dating post ... Port Washington largest online dating ... date are right in Port Washington. ... Saskatchewan , Leask Saskatchewan , Switzerland , Switzerland , Hopedale , Hopedale ... online-dating-services.communityfriends.net/ dating-service-forums/4581.html - 11k - Cached - Similar pages

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED AZ of Tourism - Holiday and Vacation guide. Offers comprehensive and continuously updated information on tourism, accommodation and entertainment for many major world cities and allows people to book ... www.a-zoftourism.com/atoz-of-cities-in-UK.htm - 41k - Cached - Similar pages SAIF - Sveriges Akademiska Idrottsförbund ... Austria Finland Georgien Hungary Netherlands (Holland) Japan Sweden Switzerland Preliminary schedule ... role in merchandising, and hosts the largest port in Sweden ... www.studentidrott.nu/floorball/index.asp - 22k - Sep 2, 2003 - Cached - Similar pages Hotels Rotterdam. Tourism Rotterdam. Accommodation Rotterdam. ... ... largest city of the Netherlands and the world's largest port. ... The port has several natural advantages, the most ... from as far away as Switzerland, France and ... www.hotels-holland.com/info/Rotterdam/rotterdam.htm - 9k - Cached - Similar pages

RELEVANCE: 

RELEVANCE a concept which has a position of centrality in search is that of relevance and yet, there is no definition of relevance relevance is a matter of degree relevance cannot be defined within the conceptual structure of bivalent logic to define relevance, what is needed is PNL (Precisiated Natural Language)

EXAMPLE: DECISION PROBLEM: 

EXAMPLE: DECISION PROBLEM should I insure my car against theft? decision-relevant information: probability that my car may be stolen? query: ?q: what is the probability that my car may be stolen? query-relevant information: information about my car and me; information in police department and insurance company files the answer yielded by bivalent-logic-based probability theory is: the probability that my car may be stolen is between 0 and 1

RELEVANCE FUNCTION: 

RELEVANCE FUNCTION Rel (q/p)= degree to which p constrains the meaning of q, with p and q expressed as generalized constraints compositionality: can Rel (q/p^r) be expressed as a function of Rel (q/p) and Rel (q/r)?

Slide28: 

PROTOFORM LANGUAGE

THE CONCEPT OF A PROTOFORM: 

THE CONCEPT OF A PROTOFORM CWP PNL PFL Protoform Language

WHAT IS A PROTOFORM?: 

WHAT IS A PROTOFORM? protoform = abbreviation of prototypical form informally, a protoform, A, of an object, B, written as A=PF(B), is an abstracted summary of B usually, B is lexical entity such as proposition, question, command, scenario, decision problem, etc more generally, B may be a relation, system, geometrical form or an object of arbitrary complexity usually, A is a symbolic expression, but, like B, it may be a complex object the primary function of PF(B) is to place in evidence the deep semantic structure of B

THE CONCEPT OF PROTOFORM AND RELATED CONCEPTS: 

THE CONCEPT OF PROTOFORM AND RELATED CONCEPTS Fuzzy Logic Bivalent Logic protoform ontology conceptual graph skeleton Montague grammar

TRANSLATION FROM NL TO PFL: 

TRANSLATION FROM NL TO PFL examples Most Swedes are tall Count (A/B) is Q Eva is much younger than Pat (A (B), A (C)) is R usually Robert returns from work at about 6pm Prob {A is B} is C Eva much younger Age Pat Age usually about 6 pm Time (Robert returns from work)

MULTILEVEL STRUCTURES: 

MULTILEVEL STRUCTURES An object has a multiplicity of protoforms Protoforms have a multilevel structure There are three principal multilevel structures Level of abstraction () Level of summarization () Level of detail () For simplicity, levels are implicit A terminal protoform has maximum level of abstraction A multilevel structure may be represented as a lattice

ABSTRACTION LATTICE: 

ABSTRACTION LATTICE example most Swedes are tall Q Swedes are tall most A’s are tall most Swedes are B Q Swedes are B Q A’s are tall most A’s are B’s Q Swedes are B Q A’s are B’s Count(B/A) is Q

LEVELS OF SUMMARIZATION: 

LEVELS OF SUMMARIZATION example p: it is very unlikely that there will be a significant increase in the price of oil in the near future PF(p): Prob(E) is A very.unlikely significant increase in the price of oil in the near future

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED semantic network representation of E E* significant increase price oil modifier variation attribute mod var attr future near epoch mod E

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED PF(E): B(C) is D PF(C): H(G(D)) near.future significant.increase.price.oil epoch oil price significant.increase

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Precisiation (f.b.-concept) E*: Epoch (Variation (Price (oil)) is significant.increase) is near.future Price significant increase current present Time near.future Price

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED precisiation of very unlikely µ V likely 1 0 1 unlikely = ant(likely) very unlikely = 2ant(likely) µvery.unlikely (v) = (µlikely (1-v))2

Slide40: 

largest port in Canada? second tallest building in San Francisco PROTOFORM OF A QUERY X A B ?X is selector (attribute (A/B)) San Francisco buildings height 2nd tallest

PROTOFORMAL SEARCH RULES: 

PROTOFORMAL SEARCH RULES example query: What is the distance between the largest city in Spain and the largest city in Portugal? protoform of query: ?Attr (Desc(A), Desc(B)) procedure query: ?Name (A)|Desc (A) query: Name (B)|Desc (B) query: ?Attr (Name (A), Name (B))

ORGANIZATION OF WORLD KNOWLEDGE EPISTEMIC (KNOWLEDGE-DIRECTED) LEXICON (EL) (ONTOLOGY-RELATED): 

ORGANIZATION OF WORLD KNOWLEDGE EPISTEMIC (KNOWLEDGE-DIRECTED) LEXICON (EL) (ONTOLOGY-RELATED) i (lexine): object, construct, concept (e.g., car, Ph.D. degree) K(i): world knowledge about i (mostly perception-based) K(i) is organized into n(i) relations Rii, …, Rin entries in Rij are bimodal-distribution-valued attributes of i values of attributes are, in general, granular and context-dependent network of nodes and links wij= granular strength of association between i and j i j rij K(i) lexine wij

EPISTEMIC LEXICON: 

EPISTEMIC LEXICON lexinei lexinej rij: i is an instance of j (is or isu) i is a subset of j (is or isu) i is a superset of j (is or isu) j is an attribute of i i causes j (or usually) i and j are related rij

EPISTEMIC LEXICON: 

EPISTEMIC LEXICON FORMAT OF RELATIONS perception-based relation lexine attributes granular values car example G: 20*% \  15k* + 40*% \ [15k*, 25k*] + • • • granular count

PROTOFORM OF A DECISION PROBLEM: 

PROTOFORM OF A DECISION PROBLEM buying a home decision attributes measurement-based: price, taxes, area, no. of rooms, … perception-based: appearance, quality of construction, security normalization of attributes ranking of importance of attributes importance function: w(attribute) importance function is granulated: L(low), M(medium), H(high)

THE CONCEPT OF i-PROTOFORM: 

THE CONCEPT OF i-PROTOFORM i-protoform: idealized protoform the key idea is to equate the grade of membership, µA(u), of an object, u, in a fuzzy set, A, to the distance of u from an i-protoform this idea is inspired by E. Rosch’s work (ca 1972) on the theory of prototypes i-protoform distance of u from i-protoform A object d U d is defined via PNL fuzzy set u

EXAMPLE: EXPECTED VALUE (f.f-concept): 

EXAMPLE: EXPECTED VALUE (f.f-concept) X: real-valued random variable with probability density g standard definition of expected value of X the label “expected value” is misleading E( X ) = average value of X

i-PROTOFORM-BASED DEFINITION OF EXPECTED VALUE: 

i-PROTOFORM-BASED DEFINITION OF EXPECTED VALUE U g 0 U µ 0 1 g normalized g i-protoform of expected value

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED U gn 0 normalized probability density of X i-protoform = E(X) E(X) is a fuzzy set grade of membership of a particular function, E*(X), in the fuzzy set of expected value of X is the distance of E*(X) form best-fitting i-protoform

I. PROTOFORMS OF GEOMETRICAL FORMS: 

I. PROTOFORMS OF GEOMETRICAL FORMS line square circle ellipse i.protoform of an oval object is an ellipsoid degree of ovalness = distance from best-fitting ellipsoid

OVALNESS: 

OVALNESS oval object best-fitting ellipse

PROTOFORM EQUIVALENCE: 

PROTOFORM EQUIVALENCE A key concept in protoform theory is that of protoform-equivalence At specified levels of abstraction, summarization and detail, p and q are protoform-equivalent, written in PFE(p, q), if p and q have identical protoforms at those levels Example p: most Swedes are tall q: few professors are rich Protoform equivalence serves as a basis for protoform-centered mode of knowledge organization

PF-EQUIVALENCE: 

PF-EQUIVALENCE Scenario A: Alan has severe back pain. He goes to see a doctor. The doctor tells him that there are two options: (1) do nothing; and (2) do surgery. In the case of surgery, there are two possibilities: (a) surgery is successful, in which case Alan will be pain free; and (b) surgery is not successful, in which case Alan will be paralyzed from the neck down. Question: Should Alan elect surgery?

PF-EQUIVALENCE: 

PF-EQUIVALENCE Scenario B: Alan needs to fly from San Francisco to St. Louis and has to get there as soon as possible. One option is fly to St. Louis via Chicago and the other through Denver. The flight via Denver is scheduled to arrive in St. Louis at time a. The flight via Chicago is scheduled to arrive in St. Louis at time b, with a<b. However, the connection time in Denver is short. If the flight is missed, then the time of arrival in St. Louis will be c, with c>b. Question: Which option is best?

THE TRIP-PLANNING PROBLEM: 

THE TRIP-PLANNING PROBLEM I have to fly from A to D, and would like to get there as soon as possible I have two choices: (a) fly to D with a connection in B; or (b) fly to D with a connection in C if I choose (a), I will arrive in D at time t1 if I choose (b), I will arrive in D at time t2 t1 is earlier than t2 therefore, I should choose (a) ? A C B D (a) (b)

PROTOFORM EQUIVALENCE: 

PROTOFORM EQUIVALENCE options gain c 1 2 a b 0

PROTOFORM-CENTERED KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION: 

PROTOFORM-CENTERED KNOWLEDGE ORGANIZATION PF-submodule PF-module PF-module knowledge base

EXAMPLE: 

EXAMPLE module submodule set of cars and their prices

Slide60: 

PROTOFORMS AND LOGICAL FORMS p=proposition in a natural language if p has a logical form, LF(p), then a protoform of p, PF(p), is an abstraction of LF(p) all men are mortal x(man(x) mortal(x)) x(A(x) B(x)) p LF(p) PF(p)

Slide61: 

CONTINUED if p does not have a logical form but is in PNL, then a protoform of p is an abstraction of the generalized constraint form of p, GC(p) most Swedes are tall ΣCount(tall.Swedes/Swedes) is most p GC(p) QA’s are B’s or Count(A/B) is Q PF(p) abstraction

Slide62: 

PROTOFORMAL (PROTOFORM-BASED) DEDUCTION precisiation abstraction Deduction Database instantiation retranslation GC(p) PF(p) PF(q) p q antecedent proposition consequent proposition

Slide63: 

protoformal rule symbolic part computational part FORMAT OF PROTOFORMAL DEDUCTION RULES

PROTOFORM DEDUCTION RULE: GENERALIZED MODUS PONENS: 

PROTOFORM DEDUCTION RULE: GENERALIZED MODUS PONENS X is A If X is B then Y is C Y is D D = A°(B×C) D = A°(BC) computational 1 computational 2 symbolic (fuzzy graph; Mamdani) (implication; conditional relation) classical A A B B fuzzy logic

Slide65: 

X is A (X, Y) is B Y is AB symbolic part computational part subject to: Prob (X is A) is B Prob (X is C) is D PROTOFORMAL RULES OF DEDUCTION examples

Slide66: 

COUNT-AND MEASURE-RELATED RULES Q A’s are B’s ant (Q) A’s are not B’s r 0 1 1 ant (Q) Q Q A’s are B’s Q1/2 A’s are 2B’s r 0 1 1 Q Q1/2 most Swedes are tall ave (height) Swedes is ?h Q A’s are B’s ave (B|A) is ?C , crisp  

Slide67: 

CONTINUED not(QA’s are B’s) (not Q) A’s are B’s Q1 A’s are B’s Q2 (A&B)’s are C’s Q1 Q2 A’s are (B&C)’s Q1 A’s are B’s Q2 A’s are C’s (Q1 +Q2 -1) A’s are (B&C)’s

Slide68: 

REASONING WITH PERCEPTIONS: DEDUCTION MODULE GC-form GC(p) perceptions p GC-forms GC(p) terminal data set terminal protoform set initial protoform set protoforms PF(p) translation explicitation precisiation IDS IGCS initial data set initial generalized constraint set IGCS IPS TPS TDS IPS abstraction deinstantiation goal-directed deduction deinstantiation initial protoform set

Slide69: 

PROTOFORMAL CONSTRAINT PROPAGATION Dana is young Age (Dana) is young X is A p GC(p) PF(p) Tandy is a few years older than Dana Age (Tandy) is (Age (Dana)) Y is (X+B) X is A Y is (X+B) Y is A+B Age (Tandy) is (young+few) +few

Slide70: 

EXAMPLE OF DEDUCTION most Swedes are tall ? R Swedes are very tall most Swedes are tall Q A’s are B’s s/a-transformation Q A’s are B’s Q½ A’s are 2B’s most½ Swedes are very tall r 1 1 0 0.25 0.5 most most

PROTOFORMAL DEDUCTION THE ROBERT EXAMPLE: 

PROTOFORMAL DEDUCTION THE ROBERT EXAMPLE The Robert example is intended to serve as an illustration of protoformal deduction. In addition, it is intended to serve as a test of ability of standard probability theory, PT, to operate on perception-based information IDS: Usually Robert returns from work at about 6 pm TDS: What is the probability that Robert is home at about t pm?

SOLUTION: 

SOLUTION Precisiation p: usually Robert returns from work at about 6 pm pp*: Prob(Return.Robert.from.work is about.6 pm is usually) What is the probability that Robert is home at about t pm? qq*: Prob(Robert.home.at.about.t pm) is ? D Abstraction p*p**: Prob(X is A) is B q*q**: Prob(Y is C) is ?D Y C D X A B

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Search in Deduction Database desired rule: Prob(X is A) is B Prob(Y is C) is ?D top-level agent reports that desired rule is not in DDB, but that a variant rule, Prob(X is A) is B Prob(X is C) is ?D , is in DDB Can the desired rule be linked to the variant rule?

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Computation Prob(X is A) is B Prob(X is C) is ?D computational part (g: probability density of X) subject to

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Search for linkage If Robert does not leave his home after returning from work, then Robert is at home at about.t pm = Robert returns from work at.or.before t pm consequently Y is about t pm= X is  about.t pm

Slide76: 

THE ROBERT EXAMPLE event equivalence Robert is home at about t pm= Robert returns from work before about t pm 1 0 T t time time of return before t* t* (about t pm) Before about t pm= ≤ o about t pm 

CONTINUED: 

CONTINUED Answer Instantiation: D= Prob {Robert is home at about t} X= Time (Robert returns from work) A= 6* B= usually C=  t* subject to

CONCLUSION: 

CONCLUSION addition of significant question-answering capability to search engines is a complex, open-ended problem incremental progress, but not much more, is achievable through the use of bivalent-logic-based methods to achieve significant progress, it is imperative to develop and employ techniques based on computing with words, protoform theory, precisiated natural language and computational theory of perceptions

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