Research Based Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century

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Chapter 5: Research-Based Teaching and Learning in the 21st Century:

Chapter 5: Research-Based Teaching and Learning in the 21 st Century

The principles of teaching for the 21st century identified by Suzanne Donovan and John Bransford (2005) 1. Teacher must address and build upon prior knowledge to promote student learning. 2. In order to develop understanding and effectively retrieve and apply knowledge in real-world contexts. 3. Students learn more effectively when they are aware of how they learn and know how to monitor and reflect on their own learning.:

The principles of teaching for the 21 st century identified by Suzanne Donovan and John Bransford (2005) 1. Teacher must address and build upon prior knowledge to promote student learning. 2. In order to develop understanding and effectively retrieve and apply knowledge in real-world contexts. 3. Students learn more effectively when they are aware of how they learn and know how to monitor and reflect on their own learning.

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1. Setting Objectives and Provoking Feedback -Provide students with a direction for learning and information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning objective 2. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition -Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal 3. Cooperative Learning - Provide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enable their learning. 4 .Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers -Enhance students’ ability to retrieve, use and organize what they already know about a topic. 5. Non-linguistic Representations -Enhance students’ ability to represent and elaborate on knowledge using mental images. The Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies

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The Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies 6. Summarizing and Note Taking - Enhance students’ ability to synthesize information and organize it in a way that captures the main ideas and supporting details. 7. Assigning Homework and Providing Practice -Enhance students’ ability to reach the expected level of proficiency for a skill or process. 8. Identifying Similarities and Differences -Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways in which items are alike and different. 9. Generating and Testing Hypotheses 9. Generating and Testing Hypotheses -Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses.

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning II. Helping students develop understanding III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.:

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning II. Helping students develop understanding III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.

I. Creating the Environment for Learning Goodwind (2011) describes teachers who create a conducive environment for learning as warm and empathetic and establish a sense of community within the classroom where they respect students and students respect them and one another.:

I. Creating the Environment for Learning Goodwind (2011) describes teachers who create a conducive environment for learning as warm and empathetic and establish a sense of community within the classroom where they respect students and students respect them and one another.

A. Setting Objectives - Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive. - Communicate the learning objectives to students and parents. - Connect the learning objectives to students and parents. - Engage students in setting personal learning objectives. :

A. Setting Objectives - Set learning objectives that are specific but not restrictive. - Communicate the learning objectives to students and parents. - Connect the learning objectives to students and parents. - Engage students in setting personal learning objectives. Instructional strategies to a positive learning environment:

B. Providing Feedback - Provide feedback to make students understand what was correct and what was incorrect and to make clear what students need to do next. - Provide feedback in time to meet students needs’ - Feedback should be criterion-referenced. - Engage students to feedback process.:

B. Providing Feedback - Provide feedback to make students understand what was correct and what was incorrect and to make clear what students need to do next. - Provide feedback in time to meet students needs’ - Feedback should be criterion-referenced. - Engage students to feedback process.

C. Reinforcing Effort - Teach student that success is within their control because it comes as a result of their effort and not because of other people or of luck.:

C. Reinforcing Effort - Teach student that success is within their control because it comes as a result of their effort and not because of other people or of luck.

D. Providing Recognition - Promote a mastery-goal orientation - Provide praise that is specific and aligned with expected performance and behaviors.:

D. Providing Recognition - Promote a mastery-goal orientation - Provide praise that is specific and aligned with expected performance and behaviors.

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E.Cooperative Learning - To lay the foundation for the students' success in a world that depends on collaboration and cooperation. - Learning atmosphere is more favorable when students work together - For an effective cooperative learning, keep group size reasonably small.

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IDENTIFICATION 1. He describes teachers who create a conducive environment for learning as warm and empathetic and establish a sense of community within the classroom. 2. Communicate the learning objectives to students and parents. 3. Feedback should be criterion-referenced. 4. Teach student that success is within their control 5. Provide praise that is specific and aligned

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6. Learning atmosphere is more favorable when students work together. 7. Engage students in setting personal learning objectives. 8. Engage students to feedback process. 9. Promote a mastery-goal orientation 10. To lay the foundation for the students' success in a world that depends on collaboration and cooperation.

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning  II. Helping students develop understanding III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.:

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning  II. Helping students develop understanding III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.

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II. Helping Students Develop Understanding The McRELs meta-analysis study (1998) found the following as effective strategies: 1 . Cues, questions and advance organizers 2 . Non-linguistic Representations 3 . Summarizing and note-taking

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1. Cues, questions and advance organizers A. Use explicit clues. This can be done by: 1. Giving a preview of what is to be learned perhaps with use of pictures. 2. By explaining the learning outcomes of the lesson/unit. 3. Providing a list of test questions that they should be able to answer at the end of the lesson/unit. Ask inferential questions not fact questions. Inferential questions are questions that can be answered through analysis and interpretation of the text. They can be answered by reading between the lines.

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B. Ask analytic questions. The first thing to remember about analysis questions is that you must know when a question is an analysis question as opposed to a comprehension question. Remember that comprehension questions require to "recall" whereas analysis questions require to  "examine, think, explain, infer, or extend."  In comprehension questions, you will look for text to directly support a given answer choice. For example: Why doesn't Sarah want to meet Emily? This is a comprehension question. Somewhere in the passage,  the text implies or explicitly states why Sarah doesn't want to meet Emily . An analysis question, on the other hand, might look more like this: Which of the following words best describes Sarah? This question requires you to take a look at the  character of Sarah as a whole and apply the answer choices to her . Clearly, this requires more thought than the previous question.

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4 Formats of Advance Organizers: Expository advance organizers – describes in written or verbal form the new content the students are about to learn. An anticipation guide (also called prediction guide) is one example of an expository advance organizer. It gives students clue about what is coming next that helps them set a purpose for learning. C. Use advanced organizers. To give the students what they are expected to learn before the real teaching-learning takes place.

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2. Narrative advance organizer – presents lessons in a story form to make relevant connection to the lesson. It can also be a form of a video clip of a material relevant to the lesson. EXAMPLE: Before beginning a unit about the experience of immigrant groups who moved to the U.S., Mr. Anderson told the story of his grandfather, who immigrated from Sweden.

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Skimming advance organizers – a process of quickly looking over a material to get a general idea of what the material is about before reading it fully. Skimming helps students identify key points.

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4. Graphic – Type of non-linguistic representation which visually represents what the student will learn. EXAMPLE:

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Using advanced organizers at the beginning of a lesson or unit focuses learning in the content to communicate what students are expected to learn. The use of Cues, Questions and Advanced Organizers can arouse their curiosity and interest in the lesson. The use of Inferential questions can help students use their background knowledge to learn new information. Advance organizers can serve as mental scaffolding or “ideational scaffolding”, Ausubel’s term learn new information.

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2. Non-linguistic Representations II. Helping Students Develop Understanding 1. Cues, questions and advance organizers  - dwell in imaginary form. - It is “expressed as mental pictures or physical sensations such as smell, taste, touch, kinesthetic association and sound”(Richardson, A. 1993).

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Non-linguistic Representations Include: 1. Graphic Organizer – Six types of graphic organizer that are commonly used to organize information are: a. Descriptive graphic organizer – gathers facts about a topic. The facts do not necessarily follow a specific order. b. Time sequence graphic organizer – organizes information in a sequential or chronological order. c. Process/cause-effect graphic organizer – organizes information that leads to an outcome or show steps to an end result. d. Episode graphic organizer – combines multiple ways of organizing information about a specific event. e. Generalization graphic organizer – presents the details and the generalization arrived at. f. Concept pattern organizer – organizes information or declarative knowledge into patterns to shoe relationships and connections of concepts.

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2. Physical models or manipulatives - Manipulatives are physical tools of teaching that engage students visually and physically with objects such coins, play money, blocks and etc. 3. Mental pictures – Make students generate mental pictures or mental images, they represent the physical world in a person’s mind. 4. Create pictures, illustrations and pictographs – by hand or on a computer is an opportunity for personalized learning 5. Engage in kinesthetic activities – Jensen (2001) claims that when students roam around as part of learning activities, they create more neural networks in their brains and the learning stays with them longer.

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2. Non-linguistic Representations  II. Helping Students Develop Understanding 1. Cues, questions and advance organizers  3. Summarizing and note taking - One way of summarizing is by the use of summary frame. A summary frame is a series of questions or statements that need to be completed. It is designed to highlight the critical elements of a specific test pattern.

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Another way of summarizing is Reciprocal teaching – refers to an instructional activity in which students become the teacher in small group reading sessions. How to use reciprocal teaching Before Reciprocal Teaching can be used successfully by your students, they need to have been taught and had time to practice the four strategies that are used in reciprocal teaching (summarizing, questioning, predicting, clarifying). 1. Put students in groups of 4. 2. Distribute one note card to each member of the group identifying each person's unique role: Summarizer Questioner Clarifier Predictor

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3. Have students read a few paragraphs of the assigned text selection. Encourage them to use note-taking strategies such as selective underlining or sticky-notes to help them better prepare for their role in the discussion. 4. At the given stopping point, the Summarizer will highlight the key ideas up to this point in the reading. 5. The Questioner will then pose questions about the selection: Unclear parts Puzzling information Connections to other concepts already learned 6. The Clarifier will address confusing parts and attempt to answer the questions that were just posed. 7. The Predictor can offer predictions about what the author will tell the group next or, if it's a literary selection, the predictor might suggest what the next events in the story will be.

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8. The roles in the group then switch one person to the right, and the next selection is read. Students repeat the process using their new roles. This continues until the entire selection is read 9. Throughout the process, the teacher's role is to guide and nurture the students' ability to use the four strategies successfully within the small group. The teacher's role is lessened as students develop skill.

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B. Note Taking – is another strategy that can help students understand and remember new information. It may be done by writing words or by drawing. 2 Formats for note taking : 1. Webbing – non-linear format and uses shapes, colors and arrows 2. Skeleton Prose - Notes are structured as a sequence of numbered points and paragraphs, with headings and indentations which resembles an essay plan.

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Which strategies do they belong? CHOICES (1-5) Cues, questions and advanced organizers Non-linguistic representation Summarizing and note-taking Giving a preview of what is to be learned perhaps with use of pictures. E xpressed as mental pictures or physical sensations such as smell, taste, touch, kinesthetic association and sound. M ay be done by writing words or by drawing. Inferential questions are questions that can be answered through analysis and interpretation of the text. Make students generate mental pictures or mental images, they represent the physical world in a person’s mind.

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Types of Graphic Organizers CHOICES (6-10) Descriptive Graphic Organizer Time Sequence Graphic Organizer Process/cause-effect Graphic Organizer Episode Graphic Organizer Generalization Graphic Organizer Concept Pattern Graphic Organizer 6. O rganizes information or declarative knowledge into patterns to shoe relationships and connections of concepts. 7. Presents the details and the generalization arrived at. Combines multiple ways of organizing information about a specific event. O rganizes information in a sequential or chronological order. G athers facts about a topic. The facts do not necessarily follow a specific order.

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning II. Helping students develop understanding III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.:

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning  II. Helping students develop understanding  III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.

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III. Helping Students Extend and Apply Knowledge Effective learning is proven in students’ ability to apply and extend knowledge Two research-based strategies on extending and apply knowledge are: Identifying similarities and differences Generating & Testing Hypotheses

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A. Identifying similarities and differences - Dean, et al (2012) gave 3 strategies in identifying similarities and differences namely; 1. Comparing – showing similarities and differences. 2. Classifying – the process of organizing groups and labeling them according to their similarities. 3. Creating analogies – the process of identifying relationships between pairs of concepts or between relationships.

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B. Generating and testing hypothesis - They apply principles learned. They deepen their understanding of the principles upon which they base their hypothesis. It can also be applied in problem solving.

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning II. Helping students develop understanding III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge.:

The nine categories can be divide into three (3) groups: I. Creating a positive environment for learning  II. Helping students develop understanding  III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge. 

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1. Setting Objectives and Provoking Feedback -Provide students with a direction for learning and information about how well they are performing relative to a particular learning objective 2. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition -Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal 3. Cooperative Learning - Provide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enable their learning. The Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies I. Creating a positive environment for learning 

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4 .Cues, Questions and Advance Organizers -Enhance students’ ability to retrieve, use and organize what they already know about a topic. 5. Non-linguistic Representations -Provide students with abstract tokens of recognition or praise for their accomplishments related to the attainment of a goal 6. Summarizing and Note Taking - Provide students with opportunities to interact with one another in ways that enable their learning. The Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies II. Helping students develop understanding 

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The Nine Categories of Instructional Strategies 7. Assigning Homework and Providing Practice -Enhance students’ ability to reach the expected level of proficiency for a skill or process. 8. Identifying Similarities and Differences -Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve identifying ways in which items are alike and different. 9. Generating and Testing Hypotheses -Enhance students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge by engaging them in mental processes that involve making and testing hypotheses. III. Helping students extend and apply knowledge. 

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Fill in the Blanks: Comparing is showing _________ and differences. 2-3. Classifying is the process of ________ groups and ________ them according to their similarities. 4-5. Creating analogies is the process of identifying relationships between pairs of _________ or between _________. 6. Effective learning is proven in students’ ability to apply and extend ____________.

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IDENTIFICATION: 7. They apply principles learned. 8-10. Give the three groups from the nine categories of instructional strategies.

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