aids to trade(comm.1)

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Transportation Warehousing Insurance Advertising Communication Banking Aids To Trade Name :Juhi Ramchandani Year:9af video Video video video video video

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Advertisement Publicists products or services to businesses and consumers to persuade them to buy or use certain product Functions of advertisement : Helps to establish a good brand name. Influences a consumers social habits . Persuasive method Informative method

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1.Persuasive method Ambition and success- the product may be linked to a successful lifestyle, Such as being a high-flyer consumers may be persuaded to think that buying that certain product will help the earn the same success 2. Social acceptance- T o be an individual fit in with the social norms and become more popular. Idol worship- a well known personality or celebrity may be used to advertise and endorse a product. a consumer may assume they will earn the same popularity as the celebrity in the advertisement Desire for an easy life- The advertisement states that the product claims to make life easier, consumers who desire an easy life will buy it in order to have relaxation 5. comedy- If the advertisement is amusing , product will then be remembered by the consumer who might then buy it

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2.Informative method Designed to give information which could benefit to a business or the public Media of Advertisement: Print media Display media Broadcast media Direct mail Other method of advertisements 1.Print media-pamphlets Usually a sheet of paper printed on both sides and folded to make an unbound booklet .as shown in the picture.

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Advantage Disadvantage Can be visually appealing consumer may throw it without reading it. lower cost of advertising compared to newspaper and magazines Not able to reach many people Advantage and disadvantage of pamphlets 2) Display media-neon lighting Signs lit up by colorful bright lights, usually on a black board to make it shine brighter .used at night outside malls and walls. Advantage Disadvantage very persuasive Very expensive Able to be seen by passerby's

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Broadcast media-radio Usually presented by using an announcement or catchy song Advantage Disadvantage Catchy and easily remembered no images to support audio messages affordable and effective Reach people who are listening to the particular channel it is broadcasted on Direct mail- Skywriting message is written in the sky via.aeroplane which emits a special smoke Advantage Disadvantage Catches attention does not last very long. reach people within a large radius Very expensive

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Video Advertisement video

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Banking Bank- The place where you keep your money. Functions of banks- Extremely important to trade as it helps buyers and sellers to make payments and collect money from each other quickly, efficiently and safely. Provides a safe place for trades to keep their money safe. It helps to lend money to businesses so that trade can continue smoothly Main services of a bank: Accepting deposits from consumers Provide loans to consumer Issue band draft or travelers cheaque Providing safe custody for consumers valubles and documents Provide cash for consumer when needed Making regular payment for consumer Provide internet banking service for customer.

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Types of bank accounts Saving account Current account Fixed deposit account The saving account Allows depositor to keep his money safe, Saving account allows a small interest A passbook is given to a person who opens a saving account The passbook is to be brought when money is deposited or withdrawn Advantage Disadvantage Money deposited earns interest Depositor cannot pay via. cheques Money is kept safe,away from theif,fire,robbery and floods Overdraft facility is not provided Advantage and disadvantage of saving account

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Offers various payment methods for consumers to make payment to parties Most businesses open current account to keep their money safe and they can pay with cheaques Current account does not offer any interest Bank charges the consumer for operating a current account for him. Procedures in opening a current account Select the bank where current account is to be opened Meet the bank manager Manager will check the individuals references When the above is done in order. the individual will be asked to go to the bank and deposited his/her money A cheque book ,paying-in book and the first statement will be issued Later a cash dispenser card (ATM card) and a cheque will also be issued The current account

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Advantage and disadvantage of current account Advantage Disadvantage Payment can be made via.cheques Bank charges a fee to open an account Money deposited is safe. recommendation is required to open an account The fixed deposit account Money deposited in the fixed deposit is not to be taken out for a specific amount of time. Interest earned is USUALLY higher than savings account The longer the money is kept the higher the interest. Advantage Disadvantage No recommendation needed Must go to bank personally to open an a/c. The longer the time kept , the more interest earned not allowed to take out money before end of agreed period

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Lending of money to businesses Bank overdraft Bank loan Bank overdraft An overdraft occurs when money is withdrawn from a bank account and the available balance goes below zero Bank loan A loan is a type of debt . Like all debt instruments, a loan entails the redistribution of financial assets over time, between the lender and the borrower . Differences of bank loan and overdraft Bank overdraft takes a longer time than applying for a loan

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Credit cards. A credit card is a small plastic card issued to users as a system of payment . It allows its holder to buy goods and services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services Advantage Disadvantage You wouldn’t need to carry a large amount of cash Card holder may overspend Pay on credit, that is no need to pay with your own money immediately There is a credit limit

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Banks introduce automatic teller machines in the 1970s, in order to give 24-hour access to accounts. Transaction can be perform withdraws ,transfer of funds, Deposits ,balance inquiry and request for Statement of account Automatic Teller Machine A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to his or her home country. Remittance

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Cheques A cheque (or check in American English ) is a document/instrument (usually a piece of paper) [ that orders a payment of money from a bank account Types of cheques Open cheques Crossed cheques Open cheques An open cheque is cashable at a counter. it is unsafe as cash paid to the wrong person would be difficult or impossible to retrieve or be refunded

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Crossed cheques A crossed cheque is a cheque which is payable only through a collecting banker and not directly at the counter of the bank. Crossing ensures security to the holder of the cheque as only the collecting banker credits the proceeds to the account of the payee of the cheque. Dishonored cheques The drawer has closed his account The drawer is dead , bankrupt or is mentally unstable The cheque is torn or defaced Advantage Disadvantage Easily carried around and safely sent by post The drawers signature may be forged Advantage and disadvantage of cheques

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Video Banking video-

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Communication Communication is the activity of conveying information between individuals or parties. Importance of communication Enables traders to order goods from their suppliers Bank provide loan to traders in need of money. The post office A post office is a facility forming part of a postal system for the posting, receipt, sorting, handling, transmission or delivery of mail Services provided Facilitate communication between parties. Buyers to make payment to sellers Act as agent of collection

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1)Facilitate communication between individuals Ordinary post Helps deliver local and foreign first and second class mail at lower cost Registered mail Compensation is made if loss of goods occurs 2 ) As a means of payment Money order A person cannot remit more than $ 1,000 Brunei and Malaysia. Not more than $400 to other countries Postal order Used for making payments not more than $100 Example $1.00,$2.00,$10.00,$50.00 3 ) As a collecting agent Collect payments for bills Water bill Electricity bill Telephone bill b. Collect and renew driving license and road taxes for cars

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TELECOMMUNICATION 1 )Telephone services 2)Video conferencing 1)Telephone services A person or firm who wants to install a telephone line must apply to telbru. Advantage Disadvantages Immediately replies to any possible question No written record of conversation Types of services include Long distance calls Subscriber trunk dialing(std) service

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Long distance calls Calls to other countries can be made using either the operator Charged according to : Distance-the further you call the higher the cost time taken by caller-the longer you take the longer the cost Type of call-extra cost for manually operated assistance Time of day-at day cost is higher . By night the call gets cheaper. 2)Subscriber trunk dialing(std) service Brunei Darussalam has four area codes used in std services: ‘2’ for brunei-muara ‘3’ for belait ‘4’ for tutong ‘5’ for temburong

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3)Using the telephone directory Yellow pages- professional and commercial organisations Green/blue pages-government departments White pages-private companines and individual subscribers Video conferencing Allows individuals in different cities or countries to hold face-to-face discussions

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Video Communication video

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Warehousing Warehousing is the provision of a place for the handling and storage of goods and materials until they are released for distribution in the local market or are shipped overseas Functions of warehousing A balance of supply and demand Goods that are SEASONALLY PRODUCED are stored in large quantities in the warehouses so that the supply can be spread out through the year to meet the regular demand of the good. storage of goods at various production stages, Warehousing is needed at every stage of production.raw materials are stored in the warehouse before production begins intermediate goods are stored until they are needed by for further production and finished goods are sent to the warehouse to await the final distribution to the consumers

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Importance of warehousing Aids in production A good example of how warehousing aids production in the car assembly industry. During periods of low demand of cars, warehousing allows manufacturer of car to continue with production in order to build up stocks that are required to meet the higher level of production during periods of rising demands. Bonded warehouse A Bonded warehouse is a building or other secured area in which dutiable goods may be stored, manipulated, or undergo manufacturing operations without payment of duty Functions of bonded warehousing They provide a space for imported goods to be stored until the duty is paid They enable the customs and excise authorities to check on the entry of goods into the county and be able to collect dutiable payments

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Bonded warehouse Ordinary warehouse Located near ports of entry into a country. No specific location for the warehouse Dutiable goods cannot be removed until duty is paid. There is a free movement of goods into and out of the warehouse. Difference between a bonded and an ordinary warehouse

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Video for warehouse V ideo

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Insurance Every individual business faces RISK. It could be the risk of loss and damage to property, vehicles and stock due to fire, burglary, flood, accident, and even theft by its own employee. it could be the risk of being sued by members of the public, its customers and even by its own employees due to damage and losses suffered by these people as a result of negligence.

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Insurance pool Insurance is pooling of risk to enable people to share risks. in life, everyone including businessmen faces risk, which lead to losses. A risk pool is one of the forms of risk management mostly practiced by i nsurance companies Under this system , insurance companies come together to form a pool, which can provide protection to insurance companies against catastrophic risks such as floods, earthquakes etc.

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Insurance is divided into 2 parts Non-insurable risk Insurable risk Insurable risk- Motor insurance- pays for damage of vehicle Fire insurance-in case your house/apartment is on fire this will cover up the cost marine insurance- consists of insurance to cover up both ships and goods against perils at sea aviation insurance- staff who travel regularly are covered with group insurance scheme Life assurance- known as life assurance not insurance because death is bound to happen

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Non-Insurable risk- Change in customers taste- customers change their choices of foods Principals of insurance Utmost good faith- fill up the proposal with true and up-to-date information Indemnity-applies to all insurance except to life assurance and personal accident insurance. Insurable interest- there is a loss to the insured ,if an insured risk event occurs to someone ,something or even someplace

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Common terms used in insurance Insured Insurer Beneficiary Policy Cover Premium The person who buys the insurance The insurance company that accepts the payment of the insurance Person named on the policy to accept insurance money if something happens to the insured The agreement signed between the insured and the insurance company(insurer) The limit per insured object the insurer pays to the insured The fee to be paid to the insurance company for the agreement to cover the insured against possible loses or damages caused by insured risks .

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video Video for insurance

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Transportation Air Water Land Type of transportations-

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Land transports Goods can be transported on land using the roads or railways, Road transports Private transports(e.g. cars, bicycles and motorbikes) Public transports(e.g. buses and taxis’) Advantage Disadvantage Highly accessible as most places have roads Some roads are not suitable for certain vehicles/goods Goods can be delivered safely, without theft risks Causes air population Advantage and disadvantage of road transports

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Rail transport 2 main forms of rail transport are trains and railcars. Trains transport both passengers and goods ,whereas railcars are shorter and can transport only passengers and mail. Another type of railcar is known as the goods train or freight train, which is used to transport big and heavy goods ,such as goods. railcars Trains Freight train Advantage Disadvantage Does not get stuck in traffic Less expensive to carry heavy goods Very expensive to build a railway maintenance expense is very high Advantage and disadvantage of rail transports

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Water transports Below are different types of sea vessels Ocean liners-transport passenger, mail and cargoes, travel on a fixed route and timetable. Cargo ships-transport cargo and does not have a fixed timetable. Cargo ship Ocean liners Advantage Disadvantage Lower transportation cost Can carry heavier cargoes than trains Rough seas can result in loss of goods Very slow mode of transport Advantage and disadvantage of water transports

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Air transports Used to transport cargoes and people over long distances between continents 2 types of air transports- airplanes and helicopters Suited for air transports -urgent mail; valuables ; valuable livestock airplanes helicopters Advantage Disadvantage Fastest mode of transport Cost of insurance is less. Very expensive Does not provide door-to-door service. Advantage and disadvantage of air transports

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Choosing a mode of transport Distance Types of goods Cost of transport Quantity of goods Value of goods Risk of damage Convenience Urgency Weight of goods Modern development of transportation Transport pipelines Containerizations Courier services

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Video Video for transportation

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