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A2 Art History:

A2 Art History HART4 Art and Architecture in C16 Europe Unit 6 Impressionism HART3 Art and Architecture in Europe and the US 1946-2000

Slide 2:

Art History A2 = 1 x 1.5 hour paper + 1 x 1.5 hour paper NO COURSEWORK Unit 3 = ‘Art and Architecture in Europe and America 1946-2000’ 25 % of total A Level mark Focusing on British and American art and architecture Unit 4 = ‘Sixteenth Century Europe’: 25% of total A Level mark Focusing on High Renaissance and Mannerist Italy, (Rome and Florence in particular), but with references to Northern Renaissance art

Slide 3:

Art History A2 = 1 x 1.5 hour paper + 1 x 1.5 hour paper NO COURSEWORK Unit 4 TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE Answer two questions, using different examples in each question. 1 Examine the differences and similarities between two sculptural representations of the human figure, each made by a different artist during the sixteenth century. ( 30 marks ) 2 Analyse and discuss the representation of the Madonna (Virgin) in three sixteenth-century paintings, each by a different artist. ( 30 marks ) 3 With reference to three sixteenth-century narrative paintings, each by a different artist, discuss the compositional arrangement of each work and assess how it contributes to telling the story in each work. ( 30 marks ) 4 Analyse the architectural characteristics of three sixteenth-century religious buildings, discussing how each conveys its religious purpose. ( 30 marks)

Questions are thematic, for example: Examine and discuss three representations of the nude in sixteenth-century art. You may select your examples form painting and/or sculpture.:

Questions are thematic, for example: Examine and discuss three representations of the nude in sixteenth-century art. You may select your examples form painting and/or sculpture. Michelangelo, David, 1501-4 Titian, Venus of Urbino , 1538. Oil on Canvas 119 ×165 cm, Uffizi Bronzino , Allegory, c1545 oil on canvas, 146x116cm, National Gallery

A2 History of Art is hard!:

A2 History of Art is hard! The exam : four thematic questions for each unit. Candidates answer two, using three examples to make their argument, so you will need to know a wide-range of examples in some depth. The board expects you to undertake independent study for at least the same amount of time as you are in class, i.e . 6 hours a week , plus visit museums and galleries on a regular basis You need to read around the subject, plus research and write essays to the best of your ability every time – this exam is all about essay-writing! Likewise, you need to pay attention in class, and take very good notes – these are essential to do well in the exam. If this will be difficult for you, perhaps consider a less essay-based subject at A2

student presentations:

student presentations 5-10 minutes on a work of art or architecture of your choice from 1500-1600, or 1946-2000 – preferably one you have been able to see for yourself, i.e. at a London museum or gallery Power point images so we can see what you are talking about Presentation should include background information about the artist/architecture and work, drawing on the key themes studied at AS and your visual analysis skills. This process will help you determine whether History of Art A2 is for you, plus is good practice in articulating your ideas about art, which in turn will help your essay-writing

Thursday 16th June, 9.40am – Ms Cohen on What is Beauty? Are there objective standards of beauty? Or is beauty in the eye of the beholder?  What relevance do notions of beauty have to History of Art – do ideas of beauty shift or are they constant and universal - must art be beautiful to be considered great art? Come with an example of a work of art you consider to be beautiful and one that you think ugly.:

Thursday 16 th June, 9.40am – Ms Cohen on What is Beauty ? Are there objective standards of beauty? Or is beauty in the eye of the beholder?  What relevance do notions of beauty have to History of Art – do ideas of beauty shift or are they constant and universal - must art be beautiful to be considered great art? Come with an example of a work of art you consider to be beautiful and one that you think ugly. Titian, Mary Magdelene , 1531, and Donatello, Mary Magdelene , 1454-55

Tuesday 21st June All day visit to New Art Centre, Sculpture Park and Gallery, Wiltshire, departing 8.30 from the Mills Centre, Highgate School, Bishopswood Road, back approximately 5pm. Cost to student: £5 entrance fee, plus packed lunch :

Tuesday 21 st June All day visit to New Art Centre, Sculpture Park and Gallery , Wiltshire, departing 8.30 from the Mills Centre, Highgate School, Bishopswood Road, back approximately 5pm. Cost to student: £5 entrance fee, plus packed lunch Michael Craig- Martin Gate (White ) 2011 Edition 1 of 3 + 1 AP Powder coated steel 296 × 256 × 2 cm / 9ft 7 × 8ft 4 × 13/16 ins

All day visit to the New Art Centre, Sculpture Park and Gallery Wiltshire. Students will be required to meet at the Mills Centre, Highgate School, Bishopwoods Road at 8.30am sharp, to catch the coach. Students who miss the coach will be required to attend school as usual. Bring a packed lunch and £5 per student entrance fee. We will return to Highgate School at around 5pm. :

All day visit to the New Art Centre, Sculpture Park and Gallery Wiltshire. Students will be required to meet at the Mills Centre, Highgate School, Bishopwoods Road at 8.30am sharp, to catch the coach . Students who miss the coach will be required to attend school as usual. Bring a packed lunch and £5 per student entrance fee. We will return to Highgate School at around 5pm.

Thursday 24th June, 9.40am, Harry Mount, architectural writer and journalist:

Thursday 24 th June, 9.40am, Harry Mount, architectural writer and journalist Harry Mount , author of A Lust for Window Sills – a guide to the History of Architecture , currently writing a book on Britishness in architecture, will talk about the influence of C16 architecture, Palladio in particular, on the terraced house. Palladio, Villa Rotonda , 1566

Visit to Kenwood House, 36 Hampstead Lane, NW3 7JR leaving school at 1pm, meeting there at 2pm :

Visit to Kenwood House , 36 Hampstead Lane, NW3 7JR leaving school at 1pm, meeting there at 2pm

Wednesday 29th June, 9.40, Helen Scott-Lidgett, Director Brunswick Arts PR:

Wednesday 29 th June , 9.40, Helen Scott- Lidgett , Director Brunswick Arts PR Helen Scott- Lidgett , Director Brunswick Arts PR, on the behind-the-scenes workings of the art world, careers and internships. She asks that you bring to the session exhibition reviews which catch your eye from the arts section of the weekend papers, eg Guardian, Observer, Financial Times .

Friday 1st July, Visit to Houses of Parliament, leaving school at 3.35pm to arrive for tour at 4.30pm. :

Friday 1 st July, Visit to Houses of Parliament , leaving school at 3.35pm to arrive for tour at 4.30pm.

Tuesday 5th July, Visit to National Gallery, tour of C16 painting collection 2.30, leaving school at 1pm :

Tuesday 5 th July , Visit to National Gallery, tour of C16 painting collection 2.30 , leaving school at 1pm

Thursday 7th July, 9.40, Edwina Ashton, on being an artist :

Thursday 7 th July, 9.40, Edwina Ashton, on being an artist Edwina Ashton makes videos, drawings, sculptures and costumes. Studied at Goldsmiths College of Art, has exhibited in New York, Rome, Miami, Berlin and Tokyo. In London she has exhibited at venues including Camden Arts Centre and Tate Britain.

Tuesday 12th July, Visit to Tracey Emin exhibition, Love Is What You Want, Hayward Gallery, leaving school 1pm:

Tuesday 12 th July, Visit to Tracey Emin exhibition, Love Is What You Want , Hayward Gallery , leaving school 1pm cost per student, paid in advance £ 5.50 - on the door £9.00 with student ID, otherwise £ 12.00

Thursday 14th July, 9.40, Matthew Slotover, director of Frieze, on Frieze art fair and the contemporary art world:

Thursday 14 th July , 9.40, Matthew Slotover , director of Frieze , on Frieze art fair and the contemporary art world Frieze magazine, founded 1991; Frieze art fair takes place every October in Regent’s Park. Founded 2003, swiftly became the focus of London’s contemporary art calendar Over 170 international contemporary art galleries, also specially commissioned artists’ projects, and talks programme . Expanding to include Frieze Masters and Frieze New York in 2012

Slide 18:

HART 4: C16 art and architecture

Rome at the Beginning of the 15th Century - Artist unknown, View of Rome Oil on canvas, ca. 1450 :

Rome at the Beginning of the 15th Century - Artist unknown, View of Rome Oil on canvas, ca. 1450 In the early 15 th century, Rome seemed a pitiful place. Its population had shrunk from around 1 million in 100 CE to under 20,000 as the result of the Black Death The ancient Colosseum was now in the countryside, the Forum was a pasture for goats and cattle, and the aqueducts had collapsed The popes had even abandoned the city when in 1309 Avignon was established as the seat of the Church. When Rome reestablished itself as the titular seat of the Church in 1379, succeeding popes rarely chose to visit the city, let alone live in it Artist unknown, View of Rome Oil on canvas, ca. 1450

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe) Raphael: ‘Julius II’, 1511

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1509 Raphael starts on the Stanze della Segnatura 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1509 Raphael starts on the Stanze della Segnatura 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview:

TOPIC 2 ART AND ARCHITECTURE IN SIXTEENTH CENTURY EUROPE: Chronology: Brief overview High Renaissance/ Mannerism 1503 Julius II elected Pope 1506: Discovery of the Laocoön Bramante lays the foundation stone of St Peters Michelangelo starts the Sistine Ceiling 1509 Raphael starts on the Stanze della Segnatura 1513 Death of Julius II 1517 Martin Luther: The 95 Theses (start of the Reformation) 1527 Sack of Rome: (Dispersal of Mannerist artists across Europe)

Michelangelo: ‘The Last Judgement’:

Michelangelo: ‘ The Last Judgement’ The Rise of ‘Protestantism’ in Northern Europe: Reformation 1517: Martin Luther posted his 95 theses, protesting against indulgences The sale of indulgences, the major source of income for the Papacy.

Michelangelo: ‘The Last Judgement’:

Michelangelo: ‘ The Last Judgement’ The Rise of ‘Protestantism’ in Northern Europe: Reformation Luther believed: That the entire papal system and governance in Rome was irretrievably corrupt Mass was not a sacrifice, but symbolic To be saved, one need only believe in Christ (justification by faith), no need for priests, the Church etc. “Luther dethroned the Pope and enthroned the Bible”

Michelangelo: ‘The Last Judgement’:

Michelangelo: ‘ The Last Judgement’ The Rise of ‘Protestantism’ in Northern Europe What was ’The Sack of Rome in 1527’? The violent invasion of Rome by forces from the North, some openly Protestant, some not. The brutality was unusual, even for this period. Mass rape, genocide and looting. Many works of art were destroyed, graffiti across the School of Athens, horses stabled in the Sistine Chapel for example…and in Florence…

Slide 36:

The Medici first rose to Florentine prominence in the fourteenth century, before buying their way into the papacy. The Medici were expelled from Florence in 1494, returning at the head of a papal army in 1513 and overthrowing the republic. Married into the aristocracy and elevated to dukes by 1518, the Medici were expelled from Florence again in 1519 following the death of Leo X. Medicean power revived again in 1521 with the election of a second Medici pope, Clement VII, flagged again with the Sack of Rome and the overthrow of the Medici regime in 1527. Papal forces again besieged Florence in 1532, erected a new fortress and established a more permanent government which lasted for two and a half centuries, Cosimo rules from 1537. Michelangelo David 1501 - 4 Florence commissioned by the Operai del Duomo

Slide 37:

The Medici first rose to Florentine prominence in the fourteenth century, before buying their way into the papacy. The Medici were expelled from Florence in 1494, returning at the head of a papal army in 1513 and overthrowing the republic. Married into the aristocracy and elevated to dukes by 1518, the Medici were expelled from Florence again in 1519 following the death of Leo X – the Medici Pope who succeeded Julius II. Medicean power revived again in 1521 with the election of a second Medici pope, Clement VII, flagged again with the Sack of Rome and the overthrow of the Medici regime in 1527. Papal forces again besieged Florence in 1532, erected a new fortress and established a more permanent government which lasted for two and a half centuries, Cosimo rules from 1537. Raphael, Portrait of Julius II , 1511-12. Oil on wood, 108 x 80,7 cm, National Gallery, London Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi , 1518- 19 Oil on wood, 154 x 119 cm, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence

Slide 38:

The Medici first rose to Florentine prominence in the fourteenth century, before buying their way into the papacy. The Medici were expelled from Florence in 1494, returning at the head of a papal army in 1513 and overthrowing the republic. Married into the aristocracy and elevated to dukes by 1518, the Medici were expelled from Florence again in 1519 following the death of Leo X. Medicean power revived again in 1521 with the election of a second Medici pope, Clement VII, flagged again with the Sack of Rome and the overthrow of the Medici regime in 1527. Papal forces again besieged Florence in 1532, erected a new fortress and established a more permanent government which lasted for two and a half centuries, Cosimo rules from 1537. Del Piombo: ‘Pope Clement VII’, 1531

Agnolo Bronzino: ‘Cosimo I de' Medici in Armour’ 1545. :

Agnolo Bronzino : ‘ Cosimo I de' Medici in Armour’ 1545. The Medici first rose to Florentine prominence in the fourteenth century, before buying their way into the papacy. The Medici were expelled from Florence in 1494, returning at the head of a papal army in 1513 and overthrowing the republic. Married into the aristocracy and elevated to dukes by 1518, the Medici were expelled from Florence again in 1519 following the death of Leo X. Medicean power revived again in 1521 with the election of a second Medici pope, Clement VII, flagged again with the Sack of Rome and the overthrow of the Medici regime in 1527. Papal forces again besieged Florence in 1532, erected a new fortress and established a more permanent government which lasted for two and a half centuries, Cosimo rules from 1537.

Invention of the Gutenberg press, c. 1439, movable reusable metal type:

Invention of the Gutenberg press, c . 1439, movable reusable metal type In this woodblock from 1568, the printer at the left is removing a page from the press, while the one at the right inks the ink blocks.

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72):

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72) The first book on architecture to be printed after Gutenberg's invention of the printing press was Leon Battista Alberti's De re aedificatoria , in 1485.

Vitruvius, C1, De Architectura, pub c.1486:

Vitruvius, C1, De Architectura , pub c.1486 Marcus Vitruvius Pollio's treatise De architectura libri decem (known in English today as 'the Ten Books') is the only surviving architectural text from the ancient Greco-Roman world.Almost all that is known about classical Greek and Roman architectural theory and practice, aside from the physical ruins, comes from this one original source . . The ten books (actually scrolls) of Vitruvius' treatise De architectura dealt with education of architects, fundamental principles, siting , material, construction, building types, and even weather considerations. Vitruvius' Book Seven addresses interiors, including materials, construction, and decoration.  This woodcut illustrates his instructions concerning the correct methods of applying stucco in damp spaces.

Vitruvius' rules for the diameter and height of columns in the different classes of temple compared with actual examples.:

Vitruvius' rules for the diameter and height of columns in the different classes of temple compared with actual examples.

Leonardo da Vinci: Vitruvian Man1492 - da Vinci drew this figure as a study of the proportions of the (male) human body described by the Roman architect Vitruvius:

Leonardo da Vinci: Vitruvian Man 1492 - da Vinci drew this figure as a study of the proportions of the (male) human body described by the Roman architect Vitruvius 1. Concern for representation of human form: anatomically accurate and in a variety of attitudes

Raphael: ‘St Catherine of Alexandria’, 1507, National Gallery:

Raphael: ‘St Catherine of Alexandria’, 1507, National Gallery 2. Figures in graceful movement/ contrapposto

Leonardo da Vinci:Virgin of the Rocks, 1491-1508, Oil on panel, 189,5 x 120 cm, National Gallery, London.:

Leonardo da Vinci: Virgin of the Rocks , 1491-1508, Oil on panel, 189,5 x 120 cm, National Gallery, London . 3. Pyramidal compositions

Leonardo da Vinci: ‘The Last Supper’, 1495-8:

Leonardo da Vinci: ‘The Last Supper’, 1495-8 4. Organised balanced and symmetrical compositions

Laocoön, First Century AD, marble.:

Laoco ön, First Century AD, marble. 5. Emulation and improvement of classical prototypes,

Laocoön, First Century AD, marble.:

Laoco ön, First Century AD, marble. 5. Emulation and improvement of classical prototypes, for instance the discovery of the Laocoon in 1506 whose exaggerated Hellenistic musculature and composition artists sought not only to copy but to surpass.

Laocoön, First Century AD, marble.:

Laoco ön, First Century AD, marble. 5. Emulation and improvement of classical prototypes, for instance the discovery of the Laocoon in 1506 whose exaggerated Hellenistic musculature and composition artists sought not only to copy but to surpass.

Laocoön, First Century AD, marble.:

Laoco ön, First Century AD, marble. 5. Emulation and improvement of classical prototypes, for instance the discovery of the Laocoon in 1506 whose exaggerated Hellenistic musculature and composition artists sought not only to copy but to surpass.

Raphael: ‘The School of Athens’, 1509-11:

Raphael: ‘The School of Athens’, 1509-11 6. Large, ambitious scale and grandness of conception, early Renaissance paintings are often crowded and busy. High Renaissance works are noble - can hold the composition of an ideal world

Michelangelo: ‘The Creation of Adam’, 1509-12:

Michelangelo: ‘The Creation of Adam’, 1509-12 7. “Serene and elevated conception, of great but controlled energy and above all Classical balance”

Slide 54:

Michelangelo Raphael Bramante The High Renaissance

Slide 55:

The TEMPIETTO ( ‘little temple’ ) (cloister of San Pietro in Montorio , Rome) Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain in 1502 Location: Janiculum Hill, Rome, traditional site of martyrdom of St Peter (outside city walls) Below the building is a crypt marking the position of the hole in the ground, created by the cross on which St Peter was crucificed .

Bramante: born just outside Urbino, trained as a painter therefore influenced by Piero della Francesca, ie highly classicised and strong interest in geometric/ symmetric form. Moved to Milan in 1481 - contact with Leonardo. According to humanists, the circle was the purest divine shape :

Bramante : born just outside Urbino , trained as a painter therefore influenced by Piero della Francesca, ie highly classicised and strong interest in geometric/ symmetric form. Moved to Milan in 1481 - contact with Leonardo. According to humanists, the circle was the purest divine shape Piero della Francesca: Baptism of Christ’. 1450’s Leonardo da Vinci: Vitruvian Man’ 1485-90 Leonardo da Vinci: Sketches for churches 1490’s Bramante

Tempietto: influence on painting:

Tempietto: influence on painting Raphael The Marriage of the Virgin 1504

SPREZZATURA (HARD WORK MADE TO LOOK EASY):

SPREZZATURA (HARD WORK MADE TO LOOK EASY) A Key Characteristic of Raphael’s work is (as defined in CASTIGLIONE’S The Courtier 1528)

Slide 60:

Raphael, Madonna of the Pinks 1506-7 (NG) Leonardo da Vinci The Virgin and Child with St Anne c1500

Slide 61:

Michelangelo, Pieta , 1497-1500, Rome, St Peter’s, marble, 1.74x1.95 m .

Entombment, c.1500-01, Tempera on wood, 159 x 149 cm, National Gallery, London:

Entombment , c.1500-01, Tempera on wood, 159 x 149 cm, National Gallery, London Architect , sculptor, painter, poet, engineer Considered himself first and foremost a sculptor Mistrusted mathematics and proportion A departure from High Renaissance regularity “Proportion should be kept in the eye’ ‘ The one genius who surpasses all others, both past and present…..the divine master not only in one art but in all three.’ Vasari, Lives of the Artists 1568 Michelangelo

Michelangelo, Holy Family (Doni tondo) oil on panel, c. 1503-6, diameter 120cm, Uffizi, Florence:

Michelangelo, Holy Family ( Doni tondo ) oil on panel, c . 1503-6, diameter 120cm, Uffizi, Florence

Slide 64:

Obvious parallels with Leonardo’s arrangement of close knit figures. Leonardo: ‘Virgin, Child with St Anne’ 1503-6 Leonardo Virgin and Child with St Anne 1507-8.

Definitions: The High Renaissance:

Definitions: The High Renaissance The change in patronage: the decline in Medici power, death of Lorenzo Medici in 1492, (Brief influence of Savonarola) The move from Florence to Rome: Popes returned to Rome in 1417, the importance of the Roman Imperial model for the rebuilding of Rome. Key Pope = Julius II

Michelangelo: ‘The Sistine Chapel’, 1509-12, Last Judgement 1535-41:

Michelangelo: ‘The Sistine Chapel’, 1509-12, Last Judgement 1535-41

Giotto: The Scrovegni Chapel’, 1305-10 Pre-Renaissance Each frame organised for the spectator standing in front of it :

Giotto: The Scrovegni Chapel’, 1305-10 Pre-Renaissance Each frame organised for the spectator standing in front of it

Slide 71:

The Laocoon, A Hellenistic sculptural group dug up near Rome in 1506 The Belvedere Torso, a classical fragment in the Vatican collection

Slide 72:

The Libyan Sibyl, 1511 – sibyls foretold the coming of Christ

Creation of the Sun, Moon, and Plants, 1511, Fresco, 280 x 570 cm, Cappella Sistina, Vatican:

Creation of the Sun, Moon, and Plants, 1511, Fresco, 280 x 570 cm, Cappella Sistina , Vatican

Sistine Chapel: Papal Apartments Raphael:

Sistine Chapel: Papal Apartments Raphael Rooms of the Papal Library Summary of Western learning and branches of knowledge Theology and Philosophy Law and Poetry The pope as cultured and religious

Slide 75:

School of Athens, 1509-12, 7.9x5.5m

Slide 76:

1508- 12 – Michelangelo Sistine Chapel ceiling The School of Athens, 1509 -11 Heraclitus wears stonecutter’s boots and said to be a portrait of Michelangelo – more muscular and sculpturesque , perhaps related to Sistine Chapel

Slide 77:

Explusion of Heliodorus , 1511-12

Slide 78:

1508-20 Rome The dramatic contrapposto of the figures shows increasing influence from Michelangelo

Slide 79:

Raphael The Transfiguration 1516-1520 oil on wood 405 x 278 cm Vatican

Raphael: ‘Transfiguration’, 1517-20:

Raphael: ‘Transfiguration’, 1517-20 Raphael’s last painting, finished by his assistant Guilio Romano Christ in spiritual space, lit by white light in a mandorla shape The subject is not just the Transfiguration, but also the failure of the disciples to cure the boy possessed by demons Mannerism in painting That effect of that failure is clear in the agitated figures, the deep shadows, the complex lighting Look for example at the different types of lighting on the hands This is very different to the calm classical balance and harmony that characterises the High Renaissance, eg the School of Athens

’, 1517-20:

Mannerism in painting Late Rapel Developing style ’ , 1517-20 1508-20 Rome Christ in spiritual space, lit by white light in a mandorla shape Figures increasingly earthbound as the eye descends the painting Bright colours, huge dramatic gestures, contorted poses suggesting inner agitation. Michelangelo: ‘Doni Tondo’, 1506-8 Raphael: ‘Heliodorus’, 1511-14 Sources for that change?

High Renaissance into Mannerism:

High Renaissance into Mannerism Raphael Transfiguration 1518-20 Michelangelo Last Judgement (Sistine) 1537-41

Mannerist Art 1520-1600:

Mannerist Art 1520-1600 A movement which reacted against the harmonious ideals associated with the Renaissance before it. Clashing, jarring colour Contortion Elongation Imbalanced compositions Ambiguous space Flouting rules of classical architecture Departure from expected conventions Eg Bronzino, Pontormo, Parmegianino, Architect - Giulio Romano

Michelangelo: ‘The Medici Chapel’, 1520-27, union of sculpture and architecture :

Michelangelo: ‘The Medici Chapel’, 1520-27, union of sculpture and architecture

Slide 85:

Michelangelo, Tomb of Giuliano de' Medici, 1526-33 with Dusk and Dawn

Slide 86:

Michelangelo, Laurentian Library, San Lorenzo, Florence, 1524-71

Slide 87:

Pontormo , Joseph in Egypt, 1515-18

Slide 88:

Title : Self Portrait Artist : Parmigianino Date : 1524 Source/ Museum: Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Medium : oil on panel Size : diameter 9 5/8" (24.7 cm)

Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck ca. 1535 oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in. :

Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck ca . 1535 oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in .

Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, 1520-22, Oil on canvas, 175 x 190 cm, National Gallery, London:

Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne , 1520-22, Oil on canvas, 175 x 190 cm, National Gallery, London

The Venus of Urbino, c. 1538, Oil on canvas, 119 x 165 cm, Uffizi, Florence:

The Venus of Urbino , c . 1538, Oil on canvas, 119 x 165 cm, Uffizi, Florence

Andrea Palladio 1508-80:

Andrea Palladio 1508-80 Palladio’s interpretation of classical temples facades: Careful use of the Classical Orders Clear symmetry and harmony Proportions of his buildings based on simple mathematical ratios Use of pure geometrical forms Villas Developed a basic model for villas which became the template for grand domestic architecture across Europe right through to the 20 th Century (e.g. English country houses), and for Christian churches as well. Only rivalled as a style by the Gothic Revival. Villa facades often modelled on Roman temple facades Writings Palladio wrote I Quattro Libri dell'Architettura or Four Books , apart from Vitruvius, probably the most influential work on architecture ever written. Republished many times, including in England in 1736

Palazzo Chiericati, Vicenza, 1550-80 - Ground storey is a Bramantesque loggia reminiscent of the Tempietto. The second story a much loftier Ionic loggia; but the architect’s unexpected coup lies in the interpenetration of this horizontal division into two stories by a vertical division into three. the second story, quit unexpectedly is filled by a wall so that this solid block of masonry appears suspended among all the columns. Effect compared to the architecture on stilts of Le Corbusier.   :

Palazzo Chiericati , Vicenza, 1550-80 - Ground storey is a Bramantesque loggia reminiscent of the Tempietto . The second story a much loftier Ionic loggia; but the architect’s unexpected coup lies in the interpenetration of this horizontal division into two stories by a vertical division into three . the second story, quit unexpectedly is filled by a wall so that this solid block of masonry appears suspended among all the columns. Effect compared to the architecture on stilts of Le Corbusier.

Andrea Palladio: ‘the Villa Rotunda’, 1566:

Andrea Palladio: ‘the Villa Rotunda’, 1566 completely symmetrical building - a square plan with four facades, each of which has a projecting portico. The whole is contained within an imaginary circle which touches each corner of the building and the centres of the porticos

Andrea Palladio: ‘the Villa Rotunda’, 1566:

Andrea Palladio: ‘the Villa Rotunda’, 1566 Classical devices: raised platform ( stylobate ); pedimented portico; rotunda Ocular window

Slide 96:

Chiswick House, Lord Burlington and William Kent 1726-9 Developed a basic model for villas which became the template for grand domestic architecture across Europe right through to the 20 th Century(e.g. English country houses)

Diagram of Palladian church facade, from Rudolph Wittkower, Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. Solved for the first time a problem that had been vexing Italian Renaissance artists ever since the beginning of the Renaissance, how to adapt a classical temple front to a church with a nave and lower side-aisles – does this by breaking one pediment – Mannerist – broken pediment becomes important feature of the Baroque :

Diagram of Palladian church facade, from Rudolph Wittkower , Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism. Solved for the first time a problem that had been vexing Italian Renaissance artists ever since the beginning of the Renaissance, how to adapt a classical temple front to a church with a nave and lower side- aisles – does this by breaking one pediment – Mannerist – broken pediment becomes important feature of the Baroque Andrea Palladio: ‘Il Redentore ’ 1577

Slide 99:

Facade “From the distance, the temple front facade stands as the front layer, behind which the higher roofs of the nave culminate in the dome and its lantern. As one approaches on axis, the building massing disappears and the white stone facade dominates.”

Looking towards the altar: As in other Counter-reformation churches, the vaults and walls of the interior are stucco, painted white, and ornament comes only from architectural detail of cut stone: columns, continuous entablatures, framed arches and railings. Note the screen of columns, in front of the choir:

Interior Looking towards the altar: As in other Counter-reformation churches, the vaults and walls of the interior are stucco, painted white, and ornament comes only from architectural detail of cut stone: columns, continuous entablatures, framed arches and railings . Note the screen of columns, in front of the choir

Holbein, The Ambassadors, 1533, Oil on oak, 207 x 209 cm, National Gallery:

Holbein, The Ambassadors , 1533, Oil on oak, 207 x 209 cm, National Gallery 1533 - the year England broke away from the Catholic church – the French ambassadors’ mission was to prevent this happening . Led to the Counter Reformation, a fragmented Europe and years of conflict. The lute with its broken string suggests the growing discord between Protestants and Catholics

Slide 103:

Hans Holbein the Younger The French Ambassadors 1533 oil and tempera on panel 6 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 1/2 in.

Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey. built in 1502-19 to house the tomb of the King and his Queen, Elizabeth of York.:

Chapel of Henry VII, Westminster Abbey . built in 1502-19 to house the tomb of the King and his Queen, Elizabeth of York. Key:
A West Entrance
B Nave
C Crossing
D Transepts 
E Choir
F Henry VII Chapel
G Cloister
H Chapter House

Slide 105:

Henry VII’s chapel, Westminster Abbey c.1503-9 , built to house the tomb of the King and his Queen, Elizabeth of York. Bramante, Tempietto , c.1504-10

interior view of the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey:

interior view of the Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey

Robert Smythson, Hardwick Hall – garden front, 1590-97 (stone and glass) (private residence) (Derbyshire, England):

Robert Smythson , Hardwick Hall – garden front , 1590-97 (stone and glass) (private residence) (Derbyshire, England)

HART3, Topic 4, Art and Architecture in Europe and the United States of America:

HART3, Topic 4, Art and Architecture in Europe and the United States of America 1946-2000

1934 Nuremberg Rally/Henry Moore, Tube Shelter Perspective, 1941, pencil, ink, wax and watercolour on paper, Tate, exhibited at the National Gallery in 1941:

1934 Nuremberg Rally/Henry Moore, Tube Shelter Perspective , 1941, pencil, ink, wax and watercolour on paper, Tate, exhibited at the National Gallery in 1941

Moore, Shelter Scenes, 1941:

Moore, Shelter Scenes, 1941

Slide 111:

'International Surrealist Exhibition', New Burlington Galleries, London, 1936. Standing left to right: Rupert Lee, Ruthven Todd, Salvador Dalí, Paul Eluard, Roland Penrose, Herbert Read, E.L.T. Mesens, George Reavey and Hugh Sykes Williams. Seated left to right: Diana Brinton Lee, Nusch Eluard, Eileen Agar, Sheila Legge and an unidentified friend of Dalí 30s : Cubism is running out of steam, > Surrealism becomes dominating Ism, Constructivists, photography, various moves towards abstraction > Paris = hotbed of artistic ideas and expressions through immigrants from Eastern Europe and Germany. After occupation through Nazi-Germany in the 40s: many artists flee to the US

Slide 112:

Mistreated and starved prisoners in the Mauthausen camp, Austria, 1945 Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.

View of the Reichstag Ruins, 1946:

View of the Reichstag Ruins, 1946

Slide 114:

Francis Bacon, Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion circa 1944, Oil on board support, each: 940 x 737 mm frame, each: 1162 x 960 x 80 mm, Tate When this triptych was first exhibited at the end of the war in 1945, it secured Bacon’s reputation. The title relates these horrific beasts to the saints traditionally portrayed at the foot of the cross in religious painting. Bacon even suggested he had intended to paint a larger crucifixion beneath which these would appear.He later related these figures to the Eumenides – the vengeful furies of Greek myth, associating them within a broader mythological tradition. Typically, Bacon drew on a range of sources for these figures, including a photograph purporting to show the materialisation of ectoplasm and the work of Pablo Picasso.

Slide 115:

The Crucifixion Mathias Gruenwald c.1510

Slide 116:

Francis Bacon, Painting , 1946 . Oil and pastel on linen, 6' 5 7/8" x 52" (197.8 x 132.1 cm), MoMA , NY “The feeling of desperation and unhappiness are more useful to an artist than the feeling of contentment, because desperation and unhappiness stretch your whole sensibility”

The Festival of Britain emblem, designed by Abram Games, from the cover of the South Bank Exhibition Guide, 1951 :

The Festival of Britain emblem, designed by Abram Games , from the cover of the South Bank Exhibition Guide, 1951 A view of the Festival of Britain

The 1951 Dome of Discovery/ Skylon :

The 1951 Dome of Discovery/ Skylon

Royal Festival Hall, Architect: Leslie Martin, Robert Matthews, Peter Moro Construction Date:1948-1951:

Royal Festival Hall, Architect: Leslie Martin, Robert Matthews, Peter Moro Construction Date: 1948-1951

The Royal Festival Hall at the time of the South Bank exhibition of 1951. river side of the building. :

The Royal Festival Hall at the time of the South Bank exhibition of 1951. river side of the building.

1953: Cecil Beaton, The Queen after her Coronation:

1953: Cecil Beaton, The Queen after her Coronation

Slide 122:

Francis Bacon Study After Valasquez’s Portrait of Pope Innocent X 1953 oil on canvas

Le Corbusier, Unité D’Habitation Marseilles 1947-52:

Le Corbusier, Unit é D’Habitation Marseilles 1947-52

Hunstanton School: Peter and Alison Smithson, 1954, Norfolk :

Hunstanton School: Peter and Alison Smithson, 1954, Norfolk

Trellick Tower, Erno Goldfinger, (Hungary), (1968 – 1972)London :

Trellick Tower, Erno Goldfinger, (Hungary ), ( 1968 – 1972 )London

Slide 126:

The National Theatre , London ( Denys Lasdun , 1976)

Slide 127:

Frank Lloyd Wright, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum , New York, USA, 1944-1959

Slide 128:

Jackson Pollock Summertime: Number 9A 1948 Oil, enamel and house paint on canvas 848 x 5550 cm Tate Modern (on display) Jackson Pollock: I prefer to tack the unstretched canvas to the hard wall or the floor…On the floor I am more at ease. I feel nearer, more a part of the painting, since this way I can walk around it…and literally be in the painting. When I am in my painting I ’ m not aware of what I ’ m doing. ”

Slide 129:

Film still of Pollock painting, Hans Namuth Total physical involvement > "action painting." Pollock spread canvas on the floor in his barn studio, or on the ground outside, and then splashed, dripped, and poured colour straight from cans of commercial house paint. It was essential, he said, to "walk around it, work from all four sides, and be in the painting, similar to the Indian sand painters of the West." The drip paintings earned Pollock notoriety as well as acclaim. Dubbed Jack the Dripper by Time magazine, he was the first American painter to become a star, and he lived up to the reputation, drinking hard and living furiously. Life magazine, 1949 http://www.sfmoma.org/multimedia/videos/250

Slide 130:

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, Seagram Building, New York, 1954-58

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Seagram Building Villa Savoye

Slide 132:

Mark Rothko, “Seagram” murals, 1958-9, Tate Modern

Slide 133:

Mark Rothko, Black on Maroon 1959
Oil on canvas, 266.7x228.6cm, Tate

Slide 134:

Maquette for Maquette for installation of Seagram murals at Tate Gallery and mini painting

Rothko room, Tate Modern:

Rothko room, Tate Modern

Interior in Paddington 1951 Oil on canvas, 152.4 x 114.3 Walker Art Gallery, National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside :

Interior in Paddington 1951 Oil on canvas, 152.4 x 114.3 Walker Art Gallery, National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside

Slide 137:

Francis Bacon and Lucian Freud in Soho, 1974

Lucian Freud, Girl with a White Dog  1950-1 Oil on canvas, 762 x 1016 mm, Tate:

Lucian Freud, Girl with a White Dog 1950- 1 Oil on canvas, 762 x 1016 mm, Tate

Slide 140:

Venus of Willendorf 24,000BC Moore and (pre)history One of the oldest known art objects, discovered in Austria in 1008. Dated 24,000-22,000BC, interpreted as a fertility image. Recumbent Figure , 1938, green Hornton stone ,139.7cm long, made for architect’s house in the South Downs, Sussex, now in the Tate

in 1924, Moore won a six month travelling scholarship which he spent in Northern Italy studying the great works of Michelangelo, Giotto and several other Old Masters:

in 1924, Moore won a six month travelling scholarship which he spent in Northern Italy studying the great works of Michelangelo, Giotto and several other Old Masters

Henry Moore, Reclining Figure  1951, Plaster and string object: 1054 x 2273 x 892 mm, 271 kg, sculpture, Tate:

Henry Moore, Reclining Figure 1951, Plaster and string object : 1054 x 2273 x 892 mm, 271 kg, sculpture, Tate

Reclining Figure: Festival 1951, bronze
Length 228.5 cm:

Reclining Figure: Festival 1951, bronze Length 228.5 cm

Anthony Caro with Henry Moore c.1952:

Anthony Caro with Henry Moore c.1952

Slide 145:

Anthony Caro Early One Morning 1962

Slide 146:

Anthony Caro Early One Morning 1962

Slide 147:

Richard Hamilton Just what is it that makes today’s homes so different, so appealing? 1956 collage on paper 10 1/4 x 9 3/4 in.

Blake, Self-Portrait with Badges  1961, Oil on board support: 1743 x 1219 mm, painting, Tate:

Blake, Self -Portrait with Badges 1961, Oil on board support : 1743 x 1219 mm, painting, Tate

Hockney, We Two Boys Together Clinging, 1961, Arts Council of England:

Hockney , We Two Boys Together Clinging , 1961, Arts Council of England

Dubuffet and view of 1960 Picasso exhibition at the Tate, both very influential on Hockney:

Dubuffet and view of 1960 Picasso exhibition at the Tate, both very influential on Hockney

Slide 151:

A Bigger Splash 1967 Acrylic on canvas 96 x 96 in (243.8 x 243.8 cm) Tate Gallery , London

Slide 152:

“I wanted to be an art businessman or a business artist. Being good in business is the most fascinating kind of art” - Andy Warhol

Slide 153:

Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych , 1962, acrylic on canvas, 205.4x144.8cm, Tate – one of many images that Warhol made of Marilyn after she died in 1962, highlighting the public obsession with celebrity. Cropped publicity photo, printed on several canvases using the silkscreen process.

Hexaptych Icon with Scenes from the Great Feasts (obverse). Byzantine, 14th century. Tempera and gold on wood; 31 x 13.5 cm (12 1/4 x 5 3/8 in.) each panel. The Holy Monastery of Saint Catherine, Sinai, Egypt. :

Hexaptych Icon with Scenes from the Great Feasts (obverse). Byzantine, 14th century. Tempera and gold on wood; 31 x 13.5 cm (12 1/4 x 5 3/8 in.) each panel. The Holy Monastery of Saint Catherine, Sinai, Egypt.

Warhol-self portraits:

Warhol-self portraits

Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam!  1963, Acrylic and oil on canvas support: 1727 x 4064 mm, Tate:

Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam !  1963, Acrylic and oil on canvas support: 1727 x 4064 mm, Tate

Gilbert & George, The Singing Sculpture, 1969:

Gilbert & George, The Singing Sculpture, 1969

Minimalism and controversy - CARL ANDRE b.1935 Equivalent VIII, 1966 Firebricks 12.7 x 68.6 x 229.2 cm:

Minimalism and controversy - CARL ANDRE b.1935 Equivalent VIII , 1966 Firebricks 12.7 x 68.6 x 229.2 cm rectangular and symmetrical arrangement of 120 bricks Questions about the meaning, function and status of such work as sculpture would appear throughout the period in the British media, most notably in 1976 when The Daily Mirror ran an exposé on the Tate’s 1972 purchase of Equivalent VIII under the cover headline ‘WHAT A LOAD OF RUBBISH’ . .

An Oak Tree  1973, Glass, water, shelf and printed text, sculpture, Tate Michael Craig-Martin on Goldsmiths and the art market http://www.theartnewspaper.tv/content.php?vid=498:

An Oak Tree 1973, Glass, water, shelf and printed text, sculpture, Tate Michael Craig-Martin on Goldsmiths and the art market http://www.theartnewspaper.tv/content.php?vid=498 An Oak Tree consists of an ordinary glass of water placed on a small glass shelf of the type normally found in a bathroom, which is attached to the wall above head height. Craig-Martin composed a series of questions and answers to accompany the objects. In these, the artist claims that the glass of water has been transformed into an oak tree .

Gormley, Land Sea and Air I 1977/79 Lead/stone/water/air Three elements, each approx. 20 x 31 x 20 cm:

Gormley , Land Sea and Air I 1977/79 Lead/stone/water/air Three elements, each approx. 20 x 31 x 20 cm Land Sea and Air I is the foundation of my work. It is based on a granite shore stone brought from the west coast of Ireland, which was covered in lead and then reopened. I covered the stone two more times. One case is filled with water, one is left empty, and the third contains the original stone.

Bed, 1981, bread, wax, 28x220x168cm, Tate What does it mean to display a bed made out of impermanent material in a museum or gallery?:

Bed , 1981, bread, wax, 28x220x168cm, Tate What does it mean to display a bed made out of impermanent material in a museum or gallery? Carl Andre, Equivalent VIII 1966, Firebricks, 127 x 686 x 2292 http://channel.tate.org.uk/media/26405849001#media:/media/40034301001&context:/channel/work-in-focus?p=5&sort=popularity

Slide 162:

Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, Centre Georges Pompidou , Paris, France, 1977

Slide 163:

Charles Moore Piazza d’Italia New Orleans, Louisiana 1978

Field for the British Isles 1993 Terracotta variable size, approx 40,000 elements, each 8-26 cm tall:

Field for the British Isles 1993 Terracotta variable size, approx 40,000 elements, each 8-26 cm tall

Critical Mass, 1995, cast iron, 60 figures, life-size. Installation, Stadtraum Remise, Vienna. ‘What excites me is the potential of sculpture and inert material to produce energy...the degree to which the work displays inertia is the degree to which the audience is invited to interact with it. There was no ‘arrangement’. Antony Gormley:

Critical Mass, 1995, cast iron, 60 figures, life-size. Installation, Stadtraum Remise, Vienna. ‘What excites me is the potential of sculpture and inert material to produce energy...the degree to which the work displays inertia is the degree to which the audience is invited to interact with it. There was no ‘arrangement’ . Antony Gormley

Rachel Whiteread, Ghost 1990, plaster on steel frame, 270x318x365cm:

Rachel Whiteread , Ghost 1990, plaster on steel frame, 270x318x365cm

Damien Hirst, A Thousand Years, 1990 Steel, glass, flies, maggots, MDF, insect-o-cutor, cow's head, sugar, water213 x 427 x 213 cm:

Damien Hirst, A Thousand Years, 1990 Steel, glass, flies, maggots, MDF, insect- o-cutor , cow's head, sugar, water213 x 427 x 213 cm

The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living 1991:

The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living 1991

1997: Sensation at the Royal Academy – selection from Charles Saatchi’s collection. A mini-retrospective for Hirst, 9 works including spot and spin painting and: :

1997: Sensation at the Royal Academy – selection from Charles Saatchi’s collection. A mini-retrospective for Hirst, 9 works including spot and spin painting and:

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Marcus Harvey, Myra, 1995, acrylic on canvas, 396 x 320cm :

Marcus Harvey, Myra , 1995, acrylic on canvas, 396 x 320cm

Jake and Dinos Chapman, Zygotic acceleration, biogenetic, de-sublimated libidinal model (enlarged x 1000) 1995:

Jake and Dinos Chapman, Zygotic acceleration, biogenetic, de-sublimated libidinal model (enlarged x 1000) 1995

Jenny Saville, Trace, 1993-4, oil on canvas, 213.5x182.8cm:

Jenny Saville , Trace , 1993-4, oil on canvas, 213.5x182.8cm

Chris Ofili, The Holy Virgin Mary, 1996, paper collage, oil paint, glitter, polyester resin, map pins, elephant dung on linen:

Chris Ofili, The Holy Virgin Mary , 1996, paper collage, oil paint, glitter, polyester resin, map pins, elephant dung on linen

Tuesday 12th July, Visit to Tracey Emin exhibition, Love Is What You Want, Hayward Gallery, leaving school 1pm:

Tuesday 12 th July, Visit to Tracey Emin exhibition, Love Is What You Want , Hayward Gallery , leaving school 1pm cost per student, paid in advance £ 5.50 - on the door £9.00 with student ID, otherwise £ 12.00

Tracey Emin as Frida Kahlo by Mary McCartney, 2000:

Tracey Emin as Frida Kahlo by Mary McCartney, 2000 Emin uses her emotional life as the source and subject matter of her art. This takes the form of narrative or documentation of traumatic events such as the death of a family member or close friend, her rape and her abortions, coupled with the direct expression of such feelings as love, hate, anger, fear and desire She truanted from school aged 13. By 15 she had left school permanently. Went on to get a First from the Maidstone Art College and an MA at the Royal College of Art. After emotional suicide following two traumatic abortions in early 1990s she invited around 80 people to invest in her creative potential, which meant for a few of ten pounds they received three official letters and one marked ‘personal’. 1993 My Major Retrospective at White Cube gallery; took out lease on a shop, The Shop, with Sarah Lucas, as alternative to ‘male’ studio. Exclusion , not fitting in, difficulty, emotional pain and suffering, rank highly amongst various themes of Emin’s work . She produces her life in a deliberately unrefined autobiographical form, aiming at immediacy and intimacy in relation to herself and her early sexual experiences.

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Tracey Emin, Everyone I have ever slept with 1963-1995, 1995. Destroyed in fire 2004 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=15jVnBlt6e0:

Tracey Emin , Everyone I have ever slept with 1963-1995, 1995. Destroyed in fire 2004 http:// www.youtube.com / watch?v =15jVnBlt6e0 Tracey Emin was born in London in 1963, and studied at Maidstone College of Art and the Royal College of Art, London. Emin’s art is one of disclosure, using her life events as inspiration for works ranging from painting, drawing, video and installation, to photography, needlework and sculpture .Shop brought tent appliquéd with names of everyone had ever been asleep with. Listmaking . Also real object to be entered. Made viewer invisible within public space of the art gallery, like being inside a wendy house. Like a chapel.

Room 1 Blankets - Hotel International, 1993:

Room 1 Blankets - Hotel International , 1993 Tracey Emin’s large appliquéd blankets overflow with words and phrases and are collaged from fabrics that have special meaning for her. Hotel International , 1993. Name of seaside hotel owned by Envar Emin in Margate when his business was a success. Appliqué blanket, first of what has become a major series of fabric works, collaged from what Emin describes as ‘sacred fabrics’. Traditionally assigned to the world of women, and made from salvaged fabric, often part of a family’s matrilineal heritage, foucs of matrimonial, female domesticity. Kind of work often undervalued as a hobby or craft, or more recently disparaged for tis association with feminist art, which reclaimed the genre in 70s and 80s.

Room 2: neon and films - Blinding, 2000, Neon, 150 × 150 × 8cm:

Room 2: neon and films - Blinding, 2000, Neon, 150 × 150 × 8cm Tracey Emin uses neon to illuminate emotions, memories, feelings and ideas in graphic messages, sentences and poems. While neon has its seedy connotations, Emin finds it sexy: ‘It’s spangly , it’s pulsating. It’s out there, it’s vibrant. ’ Translating handwriting and drawings into blown and bent neon tubing presents technical challenges,and the choice of words or images is crucial: ‘Not everything warrants being made in neon. It has to be specific. Neon is light, so, can you live with this thing glowing and the chemicals moving all the time?’

Tracey Emin, Why I Never Became a Dancer, 1995, 6min 32 sec, Tate:

Tracey Emin , Why I Never Became a Dancer , 1995, 6min 32 sec, Tate Why I Never Became a Dancer was made in an edition of ten . It invokes the artist's early teenage years spent kicking against the boredom of the seaside town, Margate, where she grew up, and experimenting with sex from an early age until she became disillusioned with men and turned instead to dancing . Beginning with the title words written large on a wall, the camera pans around views of Margate significant to Emin's past, including the school she attended, the sea front, shopping arcades and a dramatic clock tower. This sequence is overlaid with the voice of the artist narrating her story. The video climaxes with her attempt to win the finals of the local disco-dancing competition and escape to London to compete for the British Disco Dance Championship 1978.

Room 3 – trauma - I've Got It All 2000 Ink-jet print 124 x 109 cm :

Room 3 – trauma - I've Got It All 2000 Ink -jet print 124 x 109 cm Video – How it Feels , 1996. Low tech, interview format, starts with Emin sitting outside a medical centre . Describes how she became pregnant and had a late abortion which went wrong, describes her ‘emotional suicide’ as a result and the beliefs which are at the core of her work.

MEMORABILIA:

MEMORABILIA Tracey Emin’s family and friends are celebrated in many of her works. They often feature in assemblages that combine objects and ephemera along with handwritten texts. These narratives speak directly about their subjects – her maternal grandmother, her father – and the relics displayed. The earliest of them formed a ‘Wall of Memorabilia’ in her first solo exhibition, My Major Retrospective, in 1993 . In 2003, Emin returned to using memorabilia in her art. Her exhibition Menphis featured framed ephemera and text memorialising different moments in her life, from childhood to adulthood.

DRAWINGS - Sad Shower in New York, 1995:

DRAWINGS - Sad Shower in New York, 1995 Tracey Emin’s drawings are the mainstay of her art. They are monoprints , a technique which involves drawing in reverse, through the back of the paper. Emin likes it ‘because you never know what the print’s going to be like when you turn it over.’ Her characteristic graphic line finds its expression in almost every medium she uses, including needlework. She explains that ‘through my embroideries, the line I draw is accentuated and extreme, which complements the way that I think.’

Emin, My Bed, 1998, mattress, linens, pillows, rope, various memorabilia, 79x211x234, Saatchi Gallery London:

Emin , My Bed, 1998, mattress, linens, pillows, rope, various memorabilia, 79x211x234, Saatchi Gallery London

1999 - Tracey Emin (b.1963) short-listed for the Turner Prize:

1999 - Tracey Emin (b.1963) short-listed for the Turner Prize My Bed 1998 (installation view)
Mattress , bed, linens, pillows, suitcase, ephemera, 79 x 211 x 234 cm

Slide 188:

Gormley , Angel of the North Permanent installation at Gateshead , 1998 Steel 22 x 54 x 2.20 m

2000: opening of Tate Modern Encouragement and engagement of Saatchi and Turner Prize fuelled development of Tate Modern: real need for somewhere to see contemporary art. Marked international coming of age of the British art world :

2000: opening of Tate Modern Encouragement and engagement of Saatchi and Turner Prize fuelled development of Tate Modern: real need for somewhere to see contemporary art. Marked international coming of age of the British art world Louise Bourgeois (1911-2010) Maman , 1999, inaugural installation in Tate Modern’s Turbine Hall