Persuasive Techniques: Persuasive Techniques Objectives: Objectives 2e2 – Evaluate tools of persuasion (e.g., name calling, endorsement, repetition, air and rebut the other side’s point of view, association, stereotypes, bandwagon, plain folks, tabloid thinking, shock tactics and fear, inter-textual references, card stacking, slanted words, etc). WS 9 LSLHSS 8,10 LSLSTS 8 What is persuasion?: What is persuasion? An attempt to change opinions and attitudes An attempt to change your behavior EX.: lawyers, advertisements, parents Attempts at Persuasion: Attempts at Persuasion Every time you turn on the T.V., open a magazine, turn on the radio, or surf the web someone is trying to persuade you to do something If you are mathematically minded, count the number of advertisements in a magazine sometime. (you’d be amazed!) Persuasion vs. Propaganda: Persuasion vs. Propaganda Basically, they are both trying to get you to believe what they believe. Persuasion is based mainly on a person’s beliefs and they want you to feel the same way. Propaganda is based mainly on a group of peoples beliefs and they are trying to spread information about their cause. ex.: advertisements, organizations, politicians Persuasion vs. Propaganda (continued): Persuasion vs. Propaganda (continued) Persuasion and propaganda both rely on emotional appeals. But when emotional appeals ignore logic or reason, they become a poor propaganda device. A good listener can examine a persuasive statement and identify whether it is logical or not. Persuasive/Propaganda Techniques: Persuasive/Propaganda Techniques GLITTERING GENERALITY EXAGGERATION/ OVERSTATEMENT REPETITON BANDWAGON/GROUP APPEAL EXPERT TESTIMONY/ TESTIMONIAL CITING STATISTICS LOADED WORDS/SLANTED WORDS BUZZ WORDS TRANSFERENCE NAME-CALLING PLAIN FOLKS EMOTIONAL APPEALS FREE OR BARGAIN Glittering Generality: Glittering Generality Information that is so general it sounds like a fact, but isn’t. For example: “Many people believe…” The question to ask is … How many is many? Exaggeration: Exaggeration Making something seem better or more important than it is; generalizations that can’t be backed up by facts. Repetition: Repetition People will often believe something if they hear it over and over again; it seems to become more believable the more times you hear it. Bandwagon/Group Appeal: Bandwagon/Group Appeal Relying on what others are doing before making their own decision… “All the kids on the block where Levis jeans”. Everybody’s buying it and if you don’t, you’ll be left out. Expert Testimony/Testimonial: Expert Testimony/Testimonial Famous people or someone you respect or like says the product is good and advertises the product. Citing Statistics: Citing Statistics It deceives by making the message look like it is based on fact. Statistics should also be questioned… “200 doctors recommend…” but maybe 400 doctors prefer another brand. “Nine out of ten families preferred….” But what the ad fails to tell is who those ten families were. Loaded Words/Slanted Words: Loaded Words/Slanted Words Words that tend to cause favorable or unfavorable reactions. Words like “home” and “family” that you probably have strong feelings about. When these words are used to describe a product, you’re likely to feel the same way about the product as you do your family or home. Loaded words like “dishonest” and ‘wasteful” can be used to attack the competition since people don’t like dishonesty and waste Buzz Words: Buzz Words Words that have suddenly become popular with consumers… words like “pure”…”all natural”… Transfer/Transferance: Transfer/Transferance Builds connections between things that are not logically connected Name Calling: Name Calling Using words like “inexperienced” or “weaker than” when talking about the competition, without actually proving it. Plain Folks: Plain Folks People just like you, are buying it, so why don’t you? Picture in the ad will feature “down home” kind of folks, like you. Emotional Appeals/ also called Flattery or Hidden Fears: Emotional Appeals/ also called Flattery or Hidden Fears Someone tries to scare you into buying the product: If you don’t something awful (supposedly) will happen to you OR complimenting the audience. For example: the advertiser will tell viewers they have good sense to buy the product. Free or Bargain: Free or Bargain A speaker suggests that the public can get something for nothing or almost nothing.