The Phrase: The Phrase Prepositional, Verbal, and Appositive Phrases Objectives: Objectives 4c4 - Analyze sentences containing descriptive adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases (functioning as adjectives or adverbs), appositive phrases , adjective clauses, adverb clauses and noun clauses. LS3 WS2 The Phrase: The Phrase A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does NOT contain BOTH a verb and its subject. Prepositional Phrases: Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object. to the Bat Cave ( to is a preposition, Bat Cave is the object of the preposition, the is an article which modifies the object of the preposition) Types of Prepositional Phrases: Types of Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrase Modifies a noun or pronoun Which one? What kind? The boy in the plastic bubble cannot leave his house. The prep. phrase is used as an adjective to modify boy. It was not me; it was the man with one arm . The prep phrase is used as an adjective to modify man. Adverb Phrase Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb How? When? Where? Why? To what extent? His best friend drove to her house . What does the phrase modify? She is skilled at knitting . What does the phrase modify? Are the steaks good enough for eating ? What does the phrase modify? Types of Prepositional Phrases: Types of Prepositional Phrases Adjective Phrase Modifies a noun or pronoun Which one ? What kind ? The boy in the plastic bubble cannot leave his house. The prep. phrase is used as an adjective to modify boy. It was not me; it was the man with one arm . The prep phrase is used as an adjective to modify man. Types of Prepositional Phrases: Types of Prepositional Phrases Adverb Phrase Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb How? When? Where? Why? To what extent? His best friend drove to her house . Answers the question Where & modifies the verb drove. She is skilled at knitting . Answers the question to what extent & modifies the adj. skilled Verbals and Verbal Phrases: Verbals and Verbal Phrases Formed from verbs and, like verbs, have modifiers and complements However, they are NEVER used as verbs but as nouns , adjectives, and adverbs . The three kinds of verbal Phrases are Participles Gerunds Infinitives Participles: Participles Verbal that is used as an adjective Present Participles end in – ing. The running water was very cold. The boiling stew was too hot to eat. Past Participles end in – d , – ed, or an irregular form . The baked ham was our prepared meal. The athlete, known for his speed and agility, was drafted by the Saints. Participial Phrase: Participial Phrase Used as an adjective and consists of a participle and any complements or modifiers the participle has Running for the right field fence , Larry Walker pulled his left hamstring. Silently creeping down the hallway, I was able to eavesdrop on the conversation . Gerunds: Gerunds Ends in – ing that is used as a noun Gerund phrases consist of a gerund and any modifiers and complements the gerund has . The entire phrase is used as a gerund Jogging is a great way to stay fit. My favorite sport is mountain-climbing. The beautiful playing of the guitar caught my attention. I loathe the sound of scraping fingernails across a chalkboard. Infinitives: Infinitives Can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb . Most begin with the word “to.” “to” + a verb, i.e. to see, to fall, to eat, etc. As a noun To write is my life’s ambition. As an adjective The football stadium is the place to be on Saturdays. As an adverb A good woman is difficult to find. Infinitive Phrases: Infinitive Phrases Consists of an infinitive and any modifiers and complements the infinitive has , the entire phrase can be used as a noun, adjective, or adverb . To make good gumbo can be difficult. Texas is a fun team to watch on the football field. I am anxious to see the scores of the next grammar test. Appositives and Appositive Phrases: Appositives and Appositive Phrases Appositive – a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe The NFL quarterback Aaron Brooks will make careless mistakes. Bob Dylan, an accomplished songwriter , is in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Appositive phrase – a appositive and any modifiers it has The New Orleans Saints, an NFL team without many playoff wins , will be forced to play their home games in San Antonio. Next year, you will take biology, the study of living organisms .