Conjunctions Powerpoint (MS Standard 4a5)

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Conjunctions:

Conjunctions

Objectives:

Objectives 4a5 - coordinating/subordinating conjunctions; correlative conjunctions LS1 WS2

Coordinating Conjunctions :

Coordinating Conjunctions Join words, phrases, or clauses that are equal in grammatical construction and importance. Insert a comma before a coordinating conjunction that separates two independent clauses. and or but nor

Coordinating Conjunctions :

Coordinating Conjunctions Use but to express a contrasting idea. Use and to show an addition. Use or to indicate a choice. Home-based business owners usually enjoy their work, but they can become the victims of burnout. Your thoughts and reactions to events can influence your health. Lee copes with stress by meditating or by making jokes about difficult situations.

Coordinating Conjunctions :

Coordinating Conjunctions Use nor to make a second choice negative. Liz and Tony did not agree on the topics for the stress management workshop, nor did they agree on the speakers.

Coordinating Conjunctions :

Coordinating Conjunctions Do not use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that links two words or phrases . Do not use a comma before a conjunction if the material following the conjunction is not a complete sentence . Relaxation can inject happiness and fulfillment into your daily routine. Losing your temper may get attention but usually makes the situation worse.

Coordinating Conjunctions :

Coordinating Conjunctions Use commas to separate three or more words, phrases, or clauses in a series . Include a comma before the coordinating conjunction . Do not place a comma after the last item in a series . Ways to reduce stress include yoga , meditation , and exercise. Joanne usually chooses soup , salad , or a pasta dish for lunch.

Correlative Conjunctions :

Correlative Conjunctions Join words, phrases, and sentences of equal importance . Appear in pairs , and both parts receive the same attention. both/and either/or whether/or neither/nor not only/but also

Examples :

Examples Either Bernice or Lauren determines the work schedule. The speaker not only described the benefits of laughter but also related some personal stories to illustrate her point.

Subordinating Conjunctions :

Subordinating Conjunctions Introduce a dependent clause and link it to an independent clause. Use a subordinating conjunction to introduce a dependent clause. Place the comma after a dependent clause that begins a sentence. Whenever Lynn has a break, she takes a walk around the block.

Subordinating Conjunctions :

Subordinating Conjunctions Generally, do not use a comma before a dependent clause that appears at the end of a sentence . Our company hired Jack because he has strong conflict resolution skills .

Conjunctive Adverbs :

Conjunctive Adverbs consequently furthermore hence however indeed instead likewise moreover nevertheless otherwise Similarly

Conjunctive Adverbs :

Conjunctive Adverbs Show the relationship between two independent clauses of equal weight . The words are adverbs , but they also function as connectors . Use a semicolon before a conjunctive adverb when it joins two independent clauses . Use a comma after a conjunctive adverb of two or more syllables.

Examples :

Examples Exercise can reduce lower-back pain ; nevertheless, you should see a doctor before beginning an exercise program. Chris and I planned to eat lunch together ; instead, I ate a sandwich at my desk. I felt isolated and stressed working at home ; therefore, I requested a transfer to a local branch office.

Parallelism:

Parallelism Parallelism is the linking together of similar grammatical parts in a sentence. To have parallel sentence structure, similar constructions should be connected such as nouns to other nouns , verbs to other verbs , or clauses to other clauses . Coordinating conjunctions or correlative conjunctions join these parallel parts of a sentence.

Examples :

Examples Relaxation can include reading for pleasure, playing with your child, or participating in sports activities. One way to fight stress is to discuss your problems with either a friend or a relative . You can calm both your mind and your body by thinking positive thoughts.

Conjunctions and Prepositions :

Conjunctions and Prepositions Determine the appropriate function of a word in a sentence. Some words may be both prepositions and conjunctions ; for example, before, after, until, for, than, and since . Use a conjunction to connect clauses . She will not load the software until she finishes the report. Rick always arrives at work after he drops off his children at school .

Conjunctions and Prepositions :

Conjunctions and Prepositions Use a preposition when an object is expressed or understood; conjunctions do not have objects . She will not load the software until Friday. Rick always arrives at work after 9 p.m.

As, As if, As Though, Like :

As, As if, As Though, Like Use the conjunctions as, as if, or as though to introduce a subordinate clause . The clause will have a verb in it. Use the preposition like to introduce a prepositional phrase . The prepositional phrase will not contain a verb. Linda acts as if she is overworked. Katherine wants a consulting job like mine.

As . . . As, So . . .As :

As . . . As, So . . .As Use as . . . as in positive comparisons Use so . . . as in negative comparisons Do not use equally as , which is a redundant phrase Karen is as effective as Joe in handling irate customers. Karen is not so effective as Joe in handling irate customers.

Where, That :

Where, That Do not use the conjunction where instead of that to introduce a clause that includes a reference to a location . I read in a magazine that thinking about past mistakes causes stress. ( Do not use I read in a magazine where . . . .)

The End:

The End Any Questions?

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