MICROTEACHING ppt by Dr Sheetu

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MICROTEACHING BY DR.SHEETU JAILKHANI M.D Community medicine GMC, Miraj , Maharashtra

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CONTENTS Origin of Microteaching. Meaning & Definition. Objectives. Steps. Diagrammatic representation of Micro-Teaching cycle. Importance for Medical Teachers. Skills used in Micro-Teaching. Merits. Limitations.

ORIGIN & Development of microteaching:

ORIGIN & Development of microteaching Origin - at Stanford University in USA. Systematic & accurate method of giving feedback to the teacher trainee. Steps of Microteaching- Teach Feedback Re-plan Re-teach Re-feedback.

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Original process - teacher prepared a short lesson (usually 20 min) for a small group of learners, which was video taped. After the lesson - the video tape was viewed & commented on. This provided teachers with an intense ‘ Under the microscope view of their teaching. ’ . The name of Microteaching was coined for this method of developing teaching skills in 1963.

Meaning & Definition of Micro-teaching:

Meaning & Definition of Micro-teaching MEANING Microteaching is a procedure in which a student teacher practices teaching with a reduced number of pupils in a short period of time, with emphasis on a narrow & specific teaching skill. DEFINITION “ Microteaching is a teaching method in which the class size, time, task & content is scaled down to provide optimal training environment.”

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MICROTEACHING : Microteaching is a teacher training technique which helps the teacher trainee to master the teaching skills. It requires the teacher trainee the following 4S- 1.to teach a single concept of content 2.using a specified teaching skill 3.for a short time 4.to a very small member of pupils

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“Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size & time.” D.W.Allen (1966) “Microteaching is defined as a system of controlled practice, that makes it possible to concentrate on specified teaching behavior and to practice teaching under controlled conditions.” D.W.Allen and A.W.Eve (1968)

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Allen and Ryan (1969:1) stated: Microteaching  is "a training concept that can be applied at various pre-service and in-service stages in the professional development of teachers." Modern definition by Cruickshank and Metcalf (1993:87) Microteaching is a "scaled-down teaching encounter in which pre-service teachers demonstrate their ability to perform one of several desirable teacher abilities to a group of 3-5 peers during a short time period."


OBJECTIVES OF MICROTEACHING To enable teacher trainees to - Learn & assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions. Master a number of teaching skills. Gain confidence in teaching. Microteaching is Micro in the sense that it scales down the complexities of real teaching. Practicing one skill at a time. Reducing- Class size to 5-10 pupil. Duration of lesson to 5-10 minutes.

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Immediate Feedback- to improve learning. acquaint the trainee with success of his performance to evaluate & improve his teaching behaviour . Electronic gadgets can be used to facilitate effective feedback.

Steps of microteaching :

Steps of microteaching Step I: Particular skill to be practiced is explained to the teacher trainees in terms of the purpose & components of the skill with suitable examples. Step II : The Teacher trainer gives the demonstration of the skill in Microteaching in simulated conditions to the teacher trainees.

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Steps III : The teacher trainee plans a short lesson plan on the basis of the demonstrated skill for his/her practice. Step IV : The teacher trainee teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils. His lesson is supervised by supervisor and peers.

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Step V : On the basis of the observation of a lesson, the supervisor gives feedback to the Teacher trainee. The supervisor reinforces the instances of effective use of the skill and draws attention of Teacher trainee to the points where he could not do well. Step VI : In the light of the feedback given by the supervisor, the Teacher trainee re-plans the lesson plan in order to use it in more effective manner in the second trial.

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Step VII : The revised lesson is taught to another comparable group of pupils. Step VIII : The supervisor observes the re-teach lesson and gives re-feedback to the Teacher trainee with convincing arguments & reasons . Step IX : The “ teach - Re-teach” cycle may be repeated several times till adequate mastery level is achieved.



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MICRO-TEACHING - Helps medical teachers to improve their teaching skills Medical teachers have no special prior or in service training in teaching. Their teaching ability, therefore depends on Self training- by trial & error while teaching or by observation of colleagues, who may or may not be helpful examples.


SKILLS USED IN MICRO-TEACHING Lesson Planning. Introduction of the Topic (set induction). Presentation. Questioning. Dealing with student answers. Use of Blackboard. Easily legible hand-writing. Use of teaching aids & other equipment. Use of illustrations & examples Explanation Encouraging Group discussion

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Stimulus Variation Voice Variation & Modulation (pitch, volume, speed) Gesture(hand, facial, body) Pausing Movement Emphasis on significant points Variation in media/Variation in interaction Reinforcement Positive/Negative Verbal/Non-Verbal Gesture/Proximity/Contact Planned repetition Closure Be timely! Prepare to start & end in time

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The C’s of communication Clarity, Completeness, Conciseness, Concreteness, Correctness. Verbal skills loud & clear voice face to face communication Non-Verbal skills(Body language) Movement, Gestures, Body posture, facial expression, Orientation, eye contact, focussing , pausing, change in speech pattern, change in interaction style, oral-visual switching.

Use of gestures, postures & facial expressions during teaching:

Use of gestures, postures & facial expressions during teaching

Microteaching cycle:

Microteaching cycle Helps teacher to improve his/her teaching skills Its not for making a value judgement of his/her teaching capacity by his/her superiors.


MERITS OF MICROTEACHING Helps - Develop & master important teaching skills Eliminate errors. Accomplish specific teacher competencies. Vehicle of continuous training for both beginners & for senior teachers. Enables understanding of behaviours important in class room teaching.

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An individualised training technique. Increases the confidence of the learner teacher. Provides expert supervision & constructive feedback. Employs real teaching situation for developing skills. Reduces the complexity of teaching process. (scaled down teaching) Helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching.


LIMITATIONS OF MICROTEACHING Only skill oriented; content not emphasized. Large number of Trainees cannot be given the opportunity for re-teaching & re-planning. Requires special classroom setting. Covers only a few specific skills. Deviates from normal classroom teaching. Administrative problems while arranging micro lessons.

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