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Combining Effective Individual and Group Learning In Online Courses: 

Combining Effective Individual and Group Learning In Online Courses PSI and PBL in Online Learning Albert L. Ingram, Ph. D. Instructional Technology Kent State University aingram@kent.edu

Can We Base Online Learning on Theory and Tested Practice?: 

Can We Base Online Learning on Theory and Tested Practice? Do learning theories imply systems of instruction? Behaviorism Information Processing Constructivism Are there tested systems? Personalized System of Instruction Problem Based Learning

The Personalized System of Instruction: 

The Personalized System of Instruction Began with behaviorism Instructional strategies not tied to it Key characteristics Self-pacing Mastery learning High standards (near perfect on units) Lectures and demos are motivators Most communication through writing Proctors

PSI Results: 

PSI Results Effectiveness PSI achieves higher levels of learning than conventional college instruction PSI gets higher ratings from students than conventional college instruction Students retain more for longer than with conventional college instruction

Problem Based Learning: 

Problem Based Learning Cognitive/Constructivist Focus Began in Medical Schools Key Elements Problem groups: groups assign responsibilities to individuals Complex problems/ real-world situations Faculty are just facilitators; students define learning issues

PBL Results: 

PBL Results In medical education: national board exam scores usually as high as from conventional instruction Higher student ratings Better prepared for clinical years

Combining Instructional Systems: 

Combining Instructional Systems Are PSI and PBL good for different things? PSI may work best for fundamental knowledge PBL good for higher-level thinking skills Building on strengths of different approaches Learning is both individual and social

Learning Theories Course Description: 

Learning Theories Course Description Universal Professional Requirement for many Masters programs Meant to cover basic understanding of how humans learn and its application to educational settings 20-25 students most semesters Standard textbook: Human Learning by Ormrod

Implementing PSI: 

Implementing PSI Students must pass required and elective chapters for A (15/18) Quiz questions for each chapter; multiple choice and short answer Quizzes generated at random by testing program (40-80 per chapter) http://www.albertingram.com/learningtheories/quizzes.html (Practice quiz password = homer)

Implementing PBL: 

Implementing PBL Problems for two major course sections (behaviorism and cognition) Students complete course section, then are assigned to problem group Groups of 3-4 students Groups meet f2f but mostly online Groups are self-organizing but assessed for collaboration

PSI Data -- Grades: 

PSI Data -- Grades

PSI Data – Chapter Quizzes: 

PSI Data – Chapter Quizzes

PSI Data – Chapter Completion: 

PSI Data – Chapter Completion

PSI Data – Chapter Tries: 

PSI Data – Chapter Tries

PSI – Individual Differences: 

PSI – Individual Differences

PBL Data – Grades : 

PBL Data – Grades

Ratings of Personal Learning Theories: 

Ratings of Personal Learning Theories

Issues in the Course: 

Issues in the Course The downside of self-pacing Security Who is taking the quizzes? Under what conditions? Providing effective instruction on the units Need for learning objects using effective instructional strategies

Research Issues: 

Research Issues Performance on comprehensive final? Comparisons to conventional instruction Retention over time Attributing good results to PSI v. PBL Does the combination of systems with different strengths lead to well-balanced results?

Resources : 

Resources Article on applying PSI to online education: www.irrodl.org/content/v4.2/grant-spencer.html University of Delaware site on PBL: www.udel.edu/pbl Lafayette’s site on PSI: http://ww2.lafayette.edu/~allanr/psi.html PBL Initiative: http://www.pbli.org/

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