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Presentation Transcript

Slide1: 

Bill Cooper Chief of Police (ret.) E-mail: bipd1@comcast.net (425) 275-7665 www.leadingbeyondtradition.com

Terrorism: 

Terrorism Introduction to terrorism Terrorism targets and tactics Counter-terrorism Terrorism: Issues, Trends, Conclusions Risk Assessment Cases Terrorism in your area Jurisdictional response Terrorist attacks Intelligence

Terrorism: 

Terrorism The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. FBI Definition

Al Qaeda Manual: 

Al Qaeda Manual “Islamic governments have never and will never be established through peaceful solutions and cooperative councils. They are established as they (always) have been by pen and gun by word and bullet by tongue and teeth”

Al Qaeda Manual: 

Al Qaeda Manual “The confrontation Islam calls for with these godless and apostate regimes, does not know Socratic debates, Platonic ideals, nor Aristotelian diplomacy. But it knows the dialogue of bullets, the ideals of assassination, bombing, and destruction, and the diplomacy of the cannon and machine gun.”

Terrorism: 

Terrorism The War on Terror Call it guerilla warfare Call it asymmetrical warfare It’s different and doesn’t conform to the traditional definitions of war. There are no governments to negotiate with. There are no economies to sanction There are no armies, navies, or air forces to fight Terrorism crosses all ethnic, economic, political, and geographic backgrounds. WMD Task Force, Inc. 2003

Introduction to Terrorism: 

Introduction to Terrorism The objectives are to kill us, destroy us. It is premeditated, political, against civilians, sub-national groups, theater for public consumption…. It means…. us

Introduction to Terrorism: 

Introduction to Terrorism 1,600,000,000 Muslims practice Islam in the world. 18-20% live in the Middle East. 50% of Arabs in the United States are Christian. 50% of the Muslims in the United States are African-American. Estimates are that 10% are radical fundamentalists.

Introduction to Terrorism: 

Introduction to Terrorism 9/11 changed everything except the way we think. We can’t do anything about their intent or capability. We can do something about our vulnerability.

Introduction to Terrorism: 

Introduction to Terrorism Bin Laden and Al Qaeda 2-23-1998 statement: “Kill the Americans and plunder their money wherever and whenever they find it. Kill the Americans and their allies, civilian and military.” 8-28-1998 statement (Sheik Rahman): “Burn their companies; spoil their trade.” 12-27-01 statement: “Look for key pillars of US economy. They should be struck.”

Introduction to Terrorism: 

Introduction to Terrorism 12-12-2001 statement (Ayman al-Zawahiri) “The need to inflict the maximum casualties against the opponent, for this is the language understood by the West, no matter how much time and effort such operations take.” “Tracking down the Americans and Jews is not impossible. Killing them with a single bullet, a stab, or a device made up of a popular mix of explosives, or hitting them with an iron rod is not impossible. Burning down their property with Molotov cocktails is not difficult. With the available means, small groups could prove to be a frightening horror for the Americans and Jews.”

Introduction to Terrorism: 

Introduction to Terrorism January 2005 - Abu Musab al Zarqawi “God honored us and so we harvested their heads and tore up their bodies in many places”.

Terrorism Training: 

Terrorism Training Terrorist training camps: Specific to the type of training Basic training Armament Surveillance Assassination Explosives IEDs, VBIEDs, best type of explosives for particular targets; best type of detonator

Terrorism Training: 

Terrorism Training They get extensive military type training: Intense physical conditioning Watch how aggressive they are AK 47s and small arms RPGs ManPads (Russian) Explosives Land mines, TNT, C4, Semtex Shaped charges (bridges, buildings) Timing devices and detonators for IEDs

Terrorism Training: 

Terrorism Training Manufacture of poisons Surveillance of fixed targets and individuals How to conduct counter-surveillance Spend considerable time practicing it Communications – codes and cyphers False identities False passports Other IDs

Terrorism Training: 

Terrorism Training They analyze past attacks Why some failed and others succeeded Study security, methods, timing Target selection is driven by tactical considerations Ability to strike it Magnitude of the results Prominence of the target If well protected, will move elsewhere

Ahmed Ressam: 

Ahmed Ressam

NY, NJ, Wa DC Financial Institutions: 

NY, NJ, Wa DC Financial Institutions Computer seized in raid in Iraq Contained the most specific and detailed operational plan seized Wall Street – NYSE Citigroup International Monetary Fund Prudential World Bank

Terrorism Targets and Tactics: 

Terrorism Targets and Tactics US military uses civilian infrastructure. 3.5% - 7% is actually controlled by the military; the rest is controlled by civilians. These infrastructures are an opportunity for terrorists to damage the military and the civilian population, as well as the infrastructure itself – there are almost no protections of these infrastructures.

Terrorism Targets and Tactics: 

Terrorism Targets and Tactics The anthrax case: 3 teaspoons worth of anthrax $27,500,000 to clean up Senate Office Building $300,000,000 to clean up postal facilities Two pounds of anthrax would saturate all of Manhattan.

Terrorism Targets and Tactics: 

Terrorism Targets and Tactics If 123 chemical facilities in the United States were hit with a truck bomb would threaten 1,00,000 people. If 700 other chemical facilities in the United States were hit, it would only threaten 100,000 people. Where are they?

Terrorism Targets and Tactics: 

Terrorism Targets and Tactics Terrorists study and learn from previous attacks. Asymmetry – not to defeat strong forces, but to show strong forces can not prevail – do more with less. We need to study methods of attack.

Terrorism Targets and Tactics: 

Terrorism Targets and Tactics TARGET SELECTION Read annual reports to learn about executives, education, worth, families, etc. Read these reports from the perspective of a terrorist. Premised on economic value, icon status, mass casualties, response capabilities. Targets civilians, destroys property, operated covertly, uses surrogates, ignores borders, challenges governments, are funded through criminal means, and are supported by criminal states.

Law Enforcement and Terrorism: 

Law Enforcement and Terrorism Law enforcement’s role is to protect against a malevolent act. First responders are capable of counteracting the threat or activity and neutralizing it. Planning for an attack – who has done it? What specific training does everyone have? What is the cost of doing nothing?

Law Enforcement and Terrorism: 

Law Enforcement and Terrorism Terrorist attacks are crimes. Law enforcement will be involved in response and investigation. Law enforcement is usually first on the scene and last to leave. Terrorist attacks present many new and different challenges for law enforcement.

Law Enforcement and Terrorism: 

Law Enforcement and Terrorism Officers will respond to violent, dangerous, and unstable events that can kill them. Officers may face explosive, chemical, biological, radiological incidents. Officers typically will not have the training or equipment to properly react. Officers will be required to provide additional service in supporting other responding agencies.

Law Enforcement and Terrorism: 

Law Enforcement and Terrorism Which scenario does law enforcement focus on? High probability, low consequence? Low probability, high consequence? Talk about the threat, not the probability of the threat. Focus on the threat!

Law Enforcement and Terrorism: 

Law Enforcement and Terrorism If you think of a terrorist attack scenario, you won’t have the time to practice what to do after you get there.

Law Enforcement and Terrorism: 

Law Enforcement and Terrorism OPSEC Where do terrorists get their intelligence?

US Marine Barracks – Beirut 10-23-83: 

US Marine Barracks – Beirut 10-23-83

Marine Corps Barracks Beirut 1983: 

Marine Corps Barracks Beirut 1983

Slide34: 

Marine Barrack Beirut Lebanon, October 1983 Killing 243 Marines

Pan Am Flight 103 12-21-88: 

Pan Am Flight 103 12-21-88

Terrorism: 

Terrorism 3-15-2002 statement (Abu Ubeid al-Qurashi) “The WTC bomb was designed to cause the largest possible number of casualties in the 110 story WTC building, but only 6 persons were killed and 1,402 injured. The failure was the result not of the bomb but of the timing and the parking of the booby-trapped vehicle under one column that was not one of the building’s main columns.”

Significant Terrorist Incident Locations 06/15/02 to 07/01/02: 

Significant Terrorist Incident Locations 06/15/02 to 07/01/02

Significant Terrorist Incident Locations 08/01/02 to 08/15/02: 

Significant Terrorist Incident Locations 08/01/02 to 08/15/02 Chemical/ Biological "Strontiem-90” Found Miami Int’l Airport Miami, FL

KHOBAR TOWERS: 

KHOBAR TOWERS 15,000 – 20,000 lbs of TNT Stored in a Gas Truck with 4,000 gallons of gasoline and raw sewage. Crater 54 Feet across, 40 Feet deep.

Khobar Towers 6-25-96: 

Khobar Towers 6-25-96

US Embassies 8-7-98: 

US Embassies 8-7-98

Slide50: 

Bali Bombing

Madrid Train Explosives: 

Madrid Train Explosives 1 Mitsubishi Trium mobile phone 2 Copper detonator 3 Explosives (10kg) 4 Metal fragments

Car Bomb Iraq 12-21-04: 

Car Bomb Iraq 12-21-04

Baghdad 2-28-05 115 Killed: 

Baghdad 2-28-05 115 Killed

Suicide Bomber in Restaurant: 

Suicide Bomber in Restaurant

Iraq Police Station 6-27-05: 

Iraq Police Station 6-27-05

London Attack 7-6-05: 

London Attack 7-6-05

Slide92: 

FOUO/LES FOUO/LES Covert Suicide Bomber Vest Trigger Mechanism

Slide93: 

Overt Suicide Bomber Vest FOUO/LES FOUO/LES

Slide94: 

Briefcase Bomb FOUO/LES FOUO/LES Created by OSI Devices Branch according to specifications of bombs used in Israel

Slide95: 

FOUO/LES Suicide Bomber Vest FOUO/LES Created by OSI Devices Branch according to specifications of bombs used in Israel

Slide96: 

Aerial Explosives Palestinian extremists employing new tactic: Orders placed in December 2002 for hundreds of RC toy planes Planes were fitted with explosives w/range of 1km & altitude of 300m Devices used as mini “kamikaze” dive bombers Note: Although this tactic appears comical, packed with the right explosives this tool could prove highly effective as it would be easily dismissed upon first glance FOUO/LES FOUO/LES

Chemical/Biological Weapons Attacks: 

Chemical/Biological Weapons Attacks Functions to be performed: Incident assessment Establish scene control Identify substance Determine PPE needed Establish a decontamination area Plan method of entry into scene Plan type of equipment needed Enter contamination area to rescue victims

Chemical/Biological Weapons Attacks: 

Chemical/Biological Weapons Attacks Contain the release Neutralize the release Decontaminate rescuers/victims Triage the injured BLS care Consult with hospital ALS care – specific antidotes Transport to appropriate hospital Evaluate responders and equipment

Chemical/Biological Weapons Attacks: 

Chemical/Biological Weapons Attacks Complete the stabilization of the scene Begin evidence collection Determine who will clean up the scene Record keeping After action report Complete analysis of actions Complete recommendations made from the report.

Slide101: 

DLG5AUG05 19/20 July 04 Dover (Bridgeville), Delaware 75mm Mustard Round Incident

Slide102: 

19/20 July 04 Dover (Bridgeville), Delaware 75mm Mustard Round Incident

Example Case: 

Example Case Single aircraft release of agent Geography assumes 3,000 – 10,000 people per square km Source – Office of Technology Assessment, Report for the US Congress

Example Case: 

Example Case Agents released by one aircraft: Clear, sunny day, light breeze Sarin nerve gas – 1,000 kg Area at risk = .28 square miles = 30-700 deaths Anthrax spores – 100 kg Area at risk = 18 square miles = 130,000 – 460,000 deaths

Example Case: 

Example Case Overcast day or night, moderate wind Sarin nerve gas Area at risk = .3 square miles = 400 – 800 deaths Anthrax spores Area at risk = 54 square miles = 420,000 – 1,400,000 deaths

Example Case: 

Example Case Clear, calm night Sarin nerve gas Area at risk = 3 square miles = 3,000 – 8,000 deaths Anthrax spores Area at risk = 115 square miles = 1,000,000 – 3,000,000 deaths

Dirty Bombs: 

Dirty Bombs A dirty bomb is a bomb combining conventional explosives with radioactive materials (usually pellets or powder). The premise is to explode radioactive material into the area. The main purpose is to create fear and panic and make the land unusable for long periods of time.

Dirty Bombs: 

Dirty Bombs If you respond to a reported explosion of unknown origin, think DIRTY BOMB. Blast and thermal effects Radioactive shrapnel Radiation exposure Contamination Fear generation

Dirty Bombs: 

Dirty Bombs Destruction and Disruptive Factors: Type and quantity of explosives; Type, quantity, and physical form of the radioactive materials; Weather conditions; Location, time of day, and day of week.

Dirty Bombs: 

Dirty Bombs Issues of concern to 1st Responders: Safety of responders and the public; Rescue and emergency care of victims; Need for common operations guidelines among responders (ICS); Potential for multiple events or devices; Contamination of streets, buildings, structures; Mass casualties; Fear; Resource management overload Community protection actions (shelter, etc.)

Dirty Bombs: 

Dirty Bombs Decontamination of personnel, victims, vehicles, and equipment; Spread of contamination to victims, vehicles, homes, hospitals, by people fleeing the scene; Traffic management and gridlock; Information accuracy, timeliness, and coordination; Interaction/coordination among all the agencies present; Environmental issues, including clean up.

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