Humphreys

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Main Findings from the Country Reports: 

Main Findings from the Country Reports David Humphreys

18 country reports received: 

18 country reports received Austria Belgium (Flanders) Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

18 country reports received: 

18 country reports received Austria Belgium (Flanders) Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Lithuania Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom

Structure of presentation: 

Structure of presentation Supporting and impeding factors Participatory mechanisms Negotiation and conflict resolution Intersectoral coordination Long term iterative planning Other NFP elements

Supporting and impeding factors Land tenure: 

Supporting and impeding factors Land tenure Greece The well-intentioned state acts as an impeding factor Fragmented private ownership in Austria, Lithuania, Netherlands, Italy and Finland Norway What is the relationship between land tenure and participation?

Supporting and impeding factors Legal regulations: 

Supporting and impeding factors Legal regulations Switzerland The Federal Law on Forests as a major supporting factor Germany Distribution of power restricts the potential scope of a federal NFP Greece Dual influence, supporting in some areas, impeding in others Portugal A major precondition for the NFP Poland Existing legislation enabled a balanced forest economy UK Tends to rely on forms of regulation other than the law Hungary Lack of basic harmonisation

Supporting and impeding factors Financial incentives: 

Supporting and impeding factors Financial incentives UK Grant aid for almost all woodland creation Belgium (Flanders) High inheritance taxes Sweden Tax neither a supporting nor an impeding factor Spain Funds, including from EU, compensate forest owners for positive externalities Greece EU funds can act as a driver of national forest policy priority areas Switzerland Financial incentives a supporting factor for SFM

Supporting and impeding factors Political culture: 

Supporting and impeding factors Political culture France Representative rather than participatory democracy Greece Instrumental rationalist political culture Switzerland Tradition of direct public participation Lithuania Moving between political cultures with elements of the old system remaining Finland International political culture of neoliberalism

Supporting and impeding factors Institutional aspects: 

Supporting and impeding factors Institutional aspects UK Devolution and restructuring Finland SMY as a mediator Lithuania Coordination problems Collective organisation of the private sector has proceeded slowly in Lithuania, Portugal and Netherlands Sweden Forest owners should have to deal with only one government agency

Supporting and impeding factors Others: 

Supporting and impeding factors Others Low forest earnings: Belgium (Flanders) and Denmark Knowledge and expertise: An impeding factor in Poland and Denmark (Near to Nature Forest Management) Storms of 1999: An impeding factor in France (but not in Denmark)

Participatory mechanisms: 

Participatory mechanisms Sweden Use of advisory groups for over 30 years Germany Working group approach can compromise overall coherence Norway Works best for conflict resolution rather than technical issues France and Greece Expert driven rather than participation driven Hungary White Book: both experts and participation Austria Clientelism impedes participation

Negotiation and conflict resolution: 

Negotiation and conflict resolution Austria and Finland Conflict resolution tends to be restricted to interest groups within the corporatist system Netherlands Combines corporatism and liberalism yielding a consensus oriented political culture Denmark Aarhus Convention Germany “rather vague” Italy “no specific strategies” Greece and Lithuania: unfinished forest cadastre

Intersectoral coordination: 

Intersectoral coordination How to manage multiple channels and interconnections? Norway A hierarchy of processes Spain, Portugal, UK: National councils and inter-ministerial committees UK Cross-sectoral partnerships Sweden Policy restricted to forest management Netherlands “linkages without coordination”

Long-term iterative planning: 

Long-term iterative planning Spain National Forest Council will play a role in quantitative evaluation; centre-regional bilateral coordination agreements UK Long term forest design plans Norway National Budget is iterative and cyclical but NFP has yet to institutionalise monitoring and evaluation

Other elements: 

Other elements Decentralisation Sweden High degree of decentralisation Switzerland Crucial for long term SFM Netherlands An official policy since 1982 Certification United Kingdom An integral part of NFP (France An impeding factor) Education Greece Closer links between forestry and academia

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