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We did this work thinking about that and stop acting like the victims and assume our responsibility among the problem being able to act creating conscience in what we must do. About the noise we need to be part of the collective and not separate island .This Project has been done with the best interest to get our objectives beginning since this moment. The steps to do this job have been the following: first, we did a long research and look for information in different sources about the sound and the sonorous pollution. Not only in the internet but in all the others that were available, then, we organized and distributed the topics, Alter that we did a presentation in power point showing the theme widely through graphics and pictures in Power Point and finally the exposition that is going to be in the classroom. We hope that everybody enjoys, we have really learned so much and we think we are prepare to start with this process that hardly comes. Slide 4: What is Noise Pollution? Slide 5: The Noise Pollution is a type of energy pollution in which distracting, irritating, or damaging sounds are freely audible. As with other forms of energy pollution (such as heat and light pollution), noise pollution contaminants are not physical particles, but rather waves that interfere with naturally-occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment. In simple words the Noise Pollution can be defined like the excess of sound that disrupts the normal conditions of the environment in a certain area. While the noise does not accumulate, moved or maintained at the time as the others types of pollutions, can also cause negative effects physiological, psychological, economic, socially speaking to the quality of life if it is not controlled properly. Sounds are considered noise pollution if they adversely affect wildlife, human activity, or are capable of damaging physical structures on a regular, repeating basis. In the broadest sense of the term, a sound may be considered noise pollution if it disturbs any natural process or causes human harm, even if the sound does not occur on a regular basis. Slide 6: Noise Meausured Slide 7: The decibel (dB) is a measure of sound intensity; that is, the magnitude of the fluctuations in air pressure caused by sound waves. The decibel scale is logarithmic, not arithmetic. This means that a doubling of sound intensity is not represented as a doubling of the decibel level. Decibels are usually measured with a filter that emphasizes sounds in certain frequencies. The "A" filter (dBA) is the one most frequently used. The "C" filter (dBC) puts more weight on low-frequency sounds such as the bass in amplified music, This filter is called sound level meter.Normal conversation is around 60 dB. Noise of less than 75 dB, even for long periods, Is unlikely to damage your hearing. Slide 8: Sources of Noise Pollution Slide 10: What Are The Effects of Noise Pollution? the Noise pollution can affect both your health and well being in several different ways. Slide 11: Effects Of Noise On Humans Auditory effects interfering with hearing; auditory fatigue and deafness. b) Non-auditory effects interfering with social behaviour; problems with communications, sleep, recreation, mental equilibrium (peace), and the ability to concentrate at work. c) Physiological effects affecting biological functions; anxiety, neurosis, insomnia, dizziness, nausea, fatigue, visual symptoms, hypertension, cardiovascular symptoms, liver changes, nervous symptoms, changes in skin, fast irregular heart beats (tachycardia). d) Endocrine and hormonal changes relating to stress and noise levels. i.e. raised adrenaline and cholesterol. Noise causes blood vessels to close cutting down blood supply to the fingers and toes. Respiratory changes occur due to noise. e) Psychological effects; physical and mental fatigue, loss of concentration, lower efficiency, reduced output, absenteeism, higher rates of accidents, behavioural changes, errors at work, loss of sleep, psychosomatic disorders, diseases related to stress, mental illness, aggravation of existing stress problems and mental illness, neurotic effects, rage anger, crime. Slide 12: Some of the more common ways noise pollution may affect you are: Provides poor concentration Communication difficulties Annoyance Discomfort Fatigue due to insufficient rest lowered property value However, as more and more research are being done, more serious health risks have developed due to the increase in noise pollution. Some of these risks include: Hearing loss (conductive or sensorineural) Hypertension Aggressive behavior Serious sleep loss Heart disease (stress related) Danger to people - cover warning signals &: Cause accidents Slide 13: Noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Elevated workplace or other noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have been attributed to noise exposure, but evidence is limited. Although some presbycusis may occur naturally with age, in many developed nations the cumulative impact of noise is sufficient to impair the hearing of a large fraction of the population over the course of a lifetime. Noise exposure has also been known to inducetinnitus, hypertension, vasoconstriction and other cardiovascular impacts. Beyond these effects, elevated noise levels can create stress, increase workplace accident rates, and stimulate aggression and other anti-social behaviors. The most significant causes are vehicle and aircraft noise, prolonged exposure to loud music, and industrial noise. Cardiovascular effects Noise has been associated with important cardiovascular health problems. In 1999, the World Health Organization concluded that the available evidence showed suggested a weak association between long-term noise exposure above 67-70 dB(A) and hypertension. More recent studies have suggested that noise levels of 50 dB(A) at night may also increase the risk of myocardial infarction by chronically elevating cortisol production Noise health effects Slide 14: These reduce unwanted ambient sounds (i.e., acoustic noise) by means of active noise control (ANC). Essentially, this involves using a microphone, placed near the ear, and electronic circuitry which generates an "antinoise" sound wave with the opposite polarity of the sound wave arriving at the microphone. This results in destructive interference, which cancels out the noise within the enclosed volume of the headphone. Keeping noise low at the ear makes it possible to enjoy music without raising the volume unnecessarily. It can also help a passenger sleep in a noisy vehicle such as an airliner. Retail noise cancelling headphones typically only use ANC to cancel the lower-frequency portions of the noise; they depend upon traditional noise suppression techniques (such as their earcups) to prevent higher-frequency noise from reaching the interior of the headphone. This approach has three benefits: The demands on the electronic circuitry are vastly simplified. Because of the shorter wavelength of the high-frequency sound, active cancellation is much less effective at higher frequencies. To truly cancel high frequency components (coming at the ear from all directions), the sensor and emitter for the cancelling waveform would have to be adjacent to the user's eardrum, an impractical situation. Noise-cancelling headphones Slide 15: Environmental Effects Slide 16: No one on earth can escape the sounds of noise- an unwanted, disturbing sound that causes a nuisance in the eye of the beholder. Noise is a disturbance to the human environment that is escalating at such a high rate that it will become a major threat to the quality of human lives. In the past thirty years, noise in all areas, especially in urban areas, have been increasing rapidly. There are numerous effects on the human environment due to the increase in noise pollution. Slide 17: Noise can have a negative effect on humans, domestic and wild animals, ecological systems, buildings and other structures. Effects of noise on wildlife Reduced migration of birds and other animals. Loss of food habitats if animals are driven away. Animals in city zoos tend to become lethargic and their health deteriorates. Animals tend not to reproduce, which threatens their survival. Other effects include duodenal ulcers, atrophy of the thymus gland, and changes to adrenal glands. Effects of noise on structures Physical effects from noise include: vibration to buildings, damage to glass windows, plaster cracking, damage to building foundations. Jet aircraft have damaged roads and buildings. Slide 18: Industrial Noise Slide 19: Industrial noise is usually considered mainly from the point of view of environmental health and safety, rather than nuisance, as sustained exposure can cause permanent hearing damage. Traditionally, workplace noise has been a hazard linked to heavy industries such as ship-building and associated only with noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Modern thinking in occupational safety and health identifies noise as hazardous to worker safety and health in many places of employment and by a variety of means. Noise can not only cause hearing impairment (at long-term exposures of over 85 decibels (dB), known as an exposure action value), but it also acts as a causal factor for stress and raises systolic blood pressure. Additionally, it can be a causal factor in work accidents, both by masking hazards and warning signals, and by impeding concentration. Noise also acts synergistically with other hazards to increase the risk of harm to workers. In particular, noise and dangerous substances (e.g. some solvents) that have some tendencies towards ototoxicity may give rise to rapid ear damage. A-weighted measurements are commonly used to determine noise levels that can cause harm to the human ear, and special exposure meters are available that integrate noise over a period of time to give an Leq value (equivalent sound pressure level), defined by standards. Slide 20: Noise Reduction Technology Slide 21: Aircraft noise has always been a problem, and even though some piston-engine planes produced noise that many found annoying, it was the arrival of jet engines that increased the level of noise on many aircraft. The operation of the Boeing 707, first delivered in 1958, immediately presented problems to the airports where it landed and took off. Their noisy turbojet engines prompted complaints about "noise pollution" from surrounding communities. Airport authorities at London Heathrow and New York Idlewild (now Kennedy) airports instituted noise limits in the 1960s. They required long-range aircraft to fly at lighter weights (less fuel and passengers) so that they could climb faster and get farther from populated areas quickly. Some aircraft took off from Heathrow and landed at another airport in England for refueling before traveling across the Atlantic not because they lacked the range but because they were not allowed to take off at full weight and full engine power. This was obviously very inconvenient. In 1966, after a number of lawsuits in the United States and a public outcry in Europe, the major commercial aviation authorities called an international conference on aircraft noise to establish rules for aircraft. After much politicking and delay, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) decided to implement its own rules in Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 36, in 1971. FAR Part 36 established limits on the maximum noise that could be produced at an airport at three points—two on either end of the runway beneath takeoff and landing paths and one at the middle and sides of the runway. It also established a sliding scale for allowable noise versus takeoff weight for large aircraft (in other words, bigger aircraft could be noisier). Slide 22: The FAA regulations on aircraft noise were tightened several times after the initial rules were set. Naturally, this has prompted aircraft manufacturers to try to develop quieter aircraft. The first attempts to reduce aircraft noise preceded government regulation and were made in the 1950s. Although there was a lot of theoretical research by engine designers on the causes of aircraft noise and a number of proposed theoretical solutions, these theoretical solutions often did not solve the problem, and aircraft designers resorted to trial and error methods. The biggest source of aircraft noise is the engines (although the air rushing over the airframe also creates noise). Designers of jet engines suspected that the major source of engine noise came from the region behind the engine where the high-velocity exhaust (or "efflux") mixes with the lower velocity surrounding air. Engine designers in Europe concentrated on changing the nozzle designs of engines, primarily by corrugating the outer edge of the exhaust nozzle. Rather than smooth and round, they made it warped or angled, often looking like a flower. This better mixed the high-velocity efflux with the air behind the engine. In the United States, designers used this approach and also another method involving venting the exhaust from several tubes. But both of these methods increased drag and reduced engine performance, and the multi-tube approach also increased weight, sometimes substantially. Some commercial aircraft in the 1960s were fitted with truly bizarre-looking multi-lobe and multi-tube nozzles to reduce noise. Slide 23: Activity of the transport. Its scope of annoyance is limited and it is concentrated in the areas near the airports. On our country the theoretical solutions are based on: Protection on the affected houses Limitation of schedules of activities Practical standardses of reduction of emission levels Noise shielding with barriers in airports Future policy of location of facilities and limitation of areas. As in other activities the airports are born normally in the decade from the Thirties without a vision of future planning and under protection of urban nuclei, as it is the case of Barajas. The growth of the activity, power of motors, level of traffic, etc. has not been supported by measures of city-planning planning and what before she bothered to 10,000 inhabitants now bother 200,000 people who have constructed their houses next to the existing airport, knowing and accepting the annoyances of the aerial traffic. This it is a serious problem and of difficult solution in present infrastructures. The future planning if it makes possible sufficiently to isolate and to move away to the urban nuclei and the airports, like, apparently, is becoming in the definition of the location of the new airport for the Community of Madrid. Slide 24: The protection of the houses is a measurement that is beginning to apply, as much by the initiative deprived as by means of programs of financial aid in the areas catalogued like affected by the airports. It is a suitable measurement that is reducing the annoyances, although in a discreet level, since the rest of activities, outside the home, follows put under the acoustic emissions. Another measurement applied and of great effectiveness is the limitation in the schedules of the activities. The civil aviation, within the airports, cannot operate in the morning between the 24 and 6 technical hours, and some operations, like denominated " braking reverse" , they cannot be realized enters the 23 and 7 hours, except for emergency situations. On the other hand, and like general commentary, infinity of norms and protocols of action exist for the airports that result in smaller acoustic emissions and than they are, even, insufficiently respected. Since we have already indicated the majority of the citizen complaints towards the noise is concentrated as much in the leisure activities in the premises as in activities in the public thoroughfare: well-known “botellona". Slide 25: SOUND DESIGN ENVIRONMENT The noise is a problem in environments Works presents, both in workshops and in Office. The sources that originate may be different, as well as the noise level. However, methods for controlling them are identical. It then identifies recommendations for the design of the acoustic environment: Slide 26: 1. First, we must determine whether the noise level is such that it causes loss of audition. To do it, comparing measurements made with established rules, which indicate noise level by activity and exposure times, partners both are taken corrective action to reduce harmful levels of noise 2. It is known that a noise level below 85dB (A) does not cause harm to the employee. However, it can be very annoying, depending on the activity taking place. Slide 27: 3. If it is established that the noise is generated by a machine, you should see how to modify it, so it produces less noise. Sometimes with lower its speed is sufficient. You can also make a total closure of the machine, or you can opt to exchange it for another quieter. 4. If after applying the earlier recommendation, the discomfort by the noise persists, you should make provision for workers protective equipment such as earmuffs and ear plugs, without neglecting the work to be done to ensure that workers use the equipment own conviction, motivating and monitoring their use, particularly when the noise level may be caused, over time, their hearing ability. Slide 28: 5. If the walls of the compound are harsh acoustically, it will produce echoes and reflections, which will increase the sound pressure. In this case, they should seek absorbent materials for coating the walls, especially if there are machines located close to these walls. This will reduce the sound pressure. Slide 29: Fights AgainsT he Noise Pollution Slide 31: Bolivia Ecuador Venezuela Spain Countries In Against The Noise Pollution Possible Solutions : Possible Solutions Auditory personalized protection Absorbent materials Acoustics barriers Isolations Sheds Sonomuffled Personal Protection : Personal Protection It constitutes one of the most efficient methods and simultaneously economic. It is a question of the auditory stoppers called (or acoustic shells), that they have the aptitude to reduce the noise in almost 20 dB, which allows that the person who uses them could be located in very noisy environments without any problem. Very used by the workmen and other workers of some noisy industries. Acoustic Pollution : Acoustic Pollution Several years ago in the protection regulations of the environment it was not considered to be the pollutant noise, but in spite of that the industrialization and in yes cities and countries they have been growing and evolving, in all the countries of the world there have been elaborated procedure and bylaws that they entrust of the protection of the environment against the excess of noise. The most serious efforts of the international communities are translated in the deepening of the studies on reasons and origin (sources(fountains)), deterioration and policies of prevention and control of the sonorous pollution. Slide 35: Graphics Slide 37: What is going on in Dominican Republic? Slide 38: Noise pollution causes deafness tachycardia, insomnia, fatigue and increases adrenaline, causing episodes of stress, in many populations of the Cibao. The enormous amount of noise and Sonia unpleasant concern to many people in different cities of this region of the country. The observation was made by the president and CEO of the foundation Rising Sun, INC., Which operates in the city named, Dr. Ramon A. Lopez., Which point out that,this not only affects hearing and the psyche of many of those involved in musical events and street carnivals, but also to those liabilities or those to which they are subjected to a forced celebration .El said that families where there are elderly people, pregnant women, children and adolescents, are placed speakers and sound equipment on the sidewalks causing much damage to the health.And thatis the responsibility of the state and institutions, together with civil society, to deal with noise pollution decision that we are involed daily Slide 39: In our country, specifically on the Intec University, a partnership that works to combat pollution and others problems that affect us, is called Bio Intec, which is a conservationist group under the responsibility of the Department of the co-curricular INTEC. Is a group formed by students of INTEC and people identified with the need to preserve the biological balance, as well as survival and human development, in a world whose limitations should be cause for concern. The group was formed in 1984 by Lic. Valentin Rivas, Professor of Ecology and Conservation of Natural Resources of the university, Dr. Ana Mercedes Henriquez and a group of medical students. In 1985, was incorporated in a formal group under the name Eco-Intec. Slide 41: Group Proposes Reduce the unnecessary sound in our homes, like the television and radios. Reduce the loudness, unnecessary on the electronics equipments. To use more visual effects and reduce the use of alarms and horns. To use sound absorbent materials, like silencers horns. The Persons should try to use as little as possible the cars, because they are not good for the health and make very damages sounds. Try to returns to the olds customs, when the persons live without make a lot of noise, and were happy. Slide 42: To Create programs and organizations, which work without rest, creating concretizations programs, not only each Country individually, if not also in a Global way, basting on the Synergy concept “work together in order to create more”. Create University and Collegiate organizations, with the purpose of educating the young people about the Noise Pollution, like the Intec University is doing, with her organizations “Locos Por el Ruido”. Leave thinking that the world will be damage in a long time, when the reality is that consequences has begun showing since now. Create a Legislation To Control The Noise Pollution. Reduce noise by developing devices that are silent or quieter than the devices used in aircraft engines, automobiles, and industrial machines . Planting of trees and other sound absorbing materials in front of buildings where noise may be disruptive. Locate your resources effectively. For example, all areas that may create a habitation for noise, locate away from quiet areas Slide 43: Well, we think that we had achieved what we wanted with this Project, that was, as we said on our presentation sheet “stop acting like the victims and assume our responsibility among the problem being able to act creating conscience in what we must do”, maybe we can not eliminate completely the Noise Pollution, because when we were born, this problem, had already developed, so it forms part of our daily lives but, we have to think in all the effects that we are provoking with this, as of health problems like stress and hypertension, as the Environmental Effects like Reduced migration of birds and other animals and Plaster cracking, We want to continue with this? We are sure that the major of persons would probably said NOT, and we do. One of the Things that we notice in this job, was that a lot of persons don’t know about this problems, others know, but don’t care, and other know and try do to something but it almost impossible, alone, this convert the problem more difficult, in spite, a lot of Specialists, had made models that we can use to reduce the noise on the cities, like the case of the Sound Design. Thanks for read our job and let us learn this, we hope you to be glad of us. Conclusion Slide 44: The End You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.