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When do we use semi-colons? What are the rules for commas? When do we use apostrophes and quotation marks? Use this guide to help you!Slide 2: Periods . 1. Ending Sentences Use these to end two kinds of sentences: declarative sentences and imperatives . The sun is shining today. Open the door. 2. Abbreviations (shortened forms of words). I spoke with Sgt. Johnson about the troops.Slide 3: Question Marks ? The punctuation rules for question marks are very simple. In fact, there is really only one rule! 1. Ending Sentences end interrogative sentences .This kind of sentence asks a question. Any time you ask a question, end the sentence with a question mark. Should I use a question mark on this sentence? (Yes!)Slide 4: Exclamation Marks ! 1. Ending Sentences Use these at the end of exclamatory sentences , which are sentences that show emotion. We won the game! 2. Interjections You can use either an exclamation mark or a comma after an interjection . Yes! We won the game! Of course, you can see me tomorrow.Slide 5: Comma Rules , Commas show your reader that there is a pause in the sentence they are reading.Slide 6: What Friendship Is All About An interesting story of misplaced punctuation marksSlide 7: Our tale is a romantic one--or so it may appear. The story begins with an email that John received one day from his friend. Consider how pleased he must have felt to read this note from Jane:Slide 8: Dear John: I want a friend who knows what love is all about. You are generous, kind, thoughtful. People who are not like you admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me for other friends. I yearn for you. I have no feelings whatsoever when we're apart. I can be forever happy--will you let me be yours? JaneSlide 9: Unfortunately, John was far from pleased. In fact, he was heartbroken. You see, John was familiar with Jane's abnormal ways of misusing punctuation marks. And so to make sense of the true meaning of her email, he had to re-read it with the marks altered:Slide 10: Dear John: I want a friend who knows what love is. All about you are generous, kind, thoughtful people, who are not like you. Admit to being useless and inferior. You have ruined me. For other friends, I yearn. For you, I have no feelings whatsoever. When we're apart, I can be forever happy. Will you let me be? Yours, JaneSlide 11: This old grammarian's joke was made up, of course. Misplaced punctuation may lead to misunderstanding of messages. It seems that commas have more punctuation rules than any other form of punctuation. Let’s narrow them down to only seven basic rules.Slide 12: 1. Lists When you list three or more things, use commas between the words: Aroosh would like grapes, apples, and cookies. Are we having fish, chicken, or beef for dinner? 2. Three or More Adverbs or Adjectives This is a warm, fuzzy, pink sweater. (adjectives) My new car ran quietly, quickly, and smoothly. (adverbs)Slide 13: 3. Numbers When a number is over 999, use commas to separate the numbers: I paid Rs.6,5000 for my new car. The house is worth 6,000,000. 4. Dates and Addresses August 1, 2011. La Salle High School is housed at La Salle Street, Peoples Colony #1, Faisalabad. Send the package to P-3440, Street # 4, D-Block, Burkatpura, Faisalabad.Slide 14: 5. Quotations When you are quoting someone's exact speech, you must use quotation marks and a comma. Maryam exclaimed, "You came home!" "I missed you at the meeting," Anosh said.Slide 15: 6. Joining Independent Clauses When you join two independent clauses, use a comma and a coordinating conjunction . I love cats, but I also love dogs. Can you come, or should I go? My cousin had a bhangra performance, and my brother had an orchestra concert.Slide 16: 7. Introductory Words and Clauses Quietly, the cat ran past the sleeping man. ( adverbs ) Wow, my son came home from college. ( interjections ) If I see your puppy, I will call you. ( subordinate adverb clauses )Slide 17: Semicolons ; Use these to separate two complete sentences that are closely related. I went to the play; my cousin was the main actor. She wrote a check of Rs. 10,000; she should sing it before giving to the cashier.Slide 18: Colons : 1. Introducing Lists There are three ways that I love to relax: reading magazines, practicing yoga, and taking baths. 2. Introducing Single Items You can use colons to introduce single things when you want to emphasize it. After shopping for eight hours, I finally found them: the perfect pair of jeans. John Abraham is my favourite hero: he wears very stylish Fast Track glasses.Slide 19: Apostrophes ' The punctuation rules for apostrophes are some of the most commonly misused rules ever. While misusing apostrophes can make for some funny signs (We Sell Carpet's!) , you'll probably want to avoid misusing them, like in ( Your’s obediently ). The rules are pretty simple. There are only two times when you should use apostrophes.Slide 20: 1. Possessive This is Mark's cat. (The cat belongs to Mark.) That is the television's remote control. (The remote control belongs to the television.) Don't ever go into the teachers' lounge. (The lounge belongs to the teachers.)Slide 21: 2. Contractions Contractions use apostrophes to stand in the place of missing letters. I can't stand the smell of rotten ! (can't = cannot) I won't go with you. (won't = will not) The students shouldn't use cell phones in class. (shouldn't = should not)Slide 22: Quotation Marks "" 1. Quoting Exact Speech Whenever you quote someone's exact speech, you must use quotation marks. The police officer said, "Where are you going?" "I'm going to work," I replied.Slide 23: 2. Titles Use quotation marks to show the titles of magazine articles, chapters, short stories, essays, poems, and songs. "Columbus" is a great poem. Our homework tonight is to read Chapter 6, "The Lovely Rose Garden." Sydney sang "The Star Spangled Banner" at the football game. You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.