JOJO VITO, PhD,HBO CHAP 4

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Coping with Organizational Life: Stress and Careers JOJO VITO, PhD

Stress Concepts : 

2 Stress Concepts Stress: The pattern of emotional and physiological reactions occurring in response to demands from within or outside an organization Stressor: Any demand, either physical or psychological in nature, encountered during the course of living Acute stressors bring some form of sudden change that threatens us either physically or psychologically, requiring people to make unwanted adjustments Episodic stressors are the result of experiencing lots of acute stressors in a short period of time Chronic stressors are the most extreme type of stressor because they are constant and unrelenting, having a long-term effect on the body, mind, and spirit

Different Types of Stressors : 

3 Different Types of Stressors

Stress Concepts : 

4 Stress Concepts Cognitive Appraisal: The process of judging the extent to which an environmental event is a potential source of stress Strain: Deviations from normal states of human functioning resulting from prolonged exposure to stressful events Burnout: A syndrome of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion coupled with feelings of low self-esteem or low-self efficacy, resulting from prolonged exposure to intense stress and the strain reactions following from them

Causes of Stress : 

5 Causes of Stress Disempowerment - A lack of power or influence over one's life. Poor sleep (Also a response to stress as well as a cause). Victimisation (Being bullied). Losing a loved one (Bereavement or the loss of a relationship) Family difficulties (Children, sex, divorce, lovelessness) Boredom/Lack of direction in life. A lack of time to do everything that needs to be done. Poor self-image/Lack of self-worth. Negative Thinking Negative Outlook Guilt, Blame and Shame. Financial difficulties (Debt!) Misuse of drugs/alcohol. Work pressure. Illness Loneliness

five stages of sleep : 

6 five stages of sleep Stage 1 the lightest stage of sleep, the transition phase, where you feel yourself 'drifting off'. Stage 1 sleep would be the last stage before you would fully 'wake up'. You don't spend too much time in Stage 1 sleep, maybe 5- 10 minutes or so, just enough to allow your body to slow down & your muscles to relax. However, it's interesting to know that research has shown that people suffering from insomnia, may stay in Stage 1 sleep for considerably longer. Stage 2This stage is still considered light sleep, but now your brain activity starts to slow down some, and your heartrate and breathing become slower and more regular… body temperature falls a little and beginning to reach a state of total relaxation in preparation for the deeper sleep to come. Stage 3This is the start of deep sleep (also known as slow wave sleep). Stages 3 & 4 are very similar, with no visible eye or muscle movement. If you were to get woken up suddenly during stage 3 or 4, you would be 'groggy' and confused, and find it difficult to focus at first. During stage 3, your brain waves are slow 'delta waves', although there may still be short bursts of faster waves of brain activity (also known as beta-waves) . Stage 4Of the five stages of sleep, this is the one when you experience your deepest sleep of the night. Your brain only shows delta-wave (slow wave) activity, and it's pretty difficult to wake someone up when they're in this stage. It's during Stage 4 sleep that children are most likely to suffer from bedwetting or sleep terrors. Stages 3 and 4 can last anywhere from 5 - 15 minutes each, but the first deep sleep of the night is more likely to be an hour or so. This is the time when the body does most of its' repair work, and regeneration. As we get older, we tend to spend less time in deep-sleep stages, Stage 5This is the stage when we find ourselves dreaming…sometimes also called 'active sleep', gets its' name from the rapid eye movements that characterize this period. Your blood flow, breathing and brain activity increases, and your brain is about as active as it is when you're awake! Another aspect of REM sleep, is that the muscles in your arms and legs will go through periods of paralysis. Scientists speculate that this may be natures' way of protecting us from acting out our dreams. The first period of REM sleep of the night usually begins around 90 minutes after you start drifting off, and lasts for about 10 minutes. As the night passes, the periods of REM sleep become longer, with the final episode lasting an hour or so. Babies may spend as much as 50% of the time they're asleep in the REM phase, for a healthy adult it is usually around 20 - 25%, and this then decreases with age.

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Information Anxiety : 

9 Information Anxiety

Managing Stress : 

10 Managing Stress Manage your time Eat a healthy diet and be physically fit Relax and meditate Get a good night’s sleep Avoid inappropriate self-talk Control your reactions

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