JOJO VITO, HBO CHAPTER 3

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What Motivates People to Work? : 

1 What Motivates People to Work? BY:DR. JOJO VITO

Motivation : 

2 Motivation Motivation -the process of arousing, directing, and maintaining behavior toward a goal Arousal: the energy behind our actions Direction: the choice of behavior made Maintenance: an individual’s willingness to continue to exert effort until a goal is met

Need Hierarchy Theory : 

3 Need Hierarchy Theory Physiological needs: lowest-order needs, involve satisfying fundamental biological drives, e.g.needs for air, food, water, and shelter Safety needs: need to operate in an environment that is physically and psychologically safe and secure, free from threats of harm Social needs: need to be affiliative -- that is, to be liked and accepted by others Esteem needs: need to achieve success and have others recognize our accomplishments Self-actualization needs: need to perform at one’s maximum level of creativity and become a valuable asset to one’s organization

Slide 4: 

4

Equity Theory( ET) : 

5 Equity Theory( ET) ET proposes that people are motivated to maintain fair, or equitable, relationships between themselves and others, and to avoid those relationships that are unfair, or inequitable To make judgments of equity, people compare themselves to others by focusing on two variables: Outcomes: What they get out of their jobs Pay, fringe benefits, prestige Inputs: The contributions they make to their jobs Time worked, effort exerted, units produced People make equity judgments by comparing their own outcome/input ratios to the outcome/input ratios of others

Equity Theory : 

6 Equity Theory

Reactions to Inequity : 

7 Reactions to Inequity

Expectancy Theory : 

8 Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory claims that people will be motivated to exert effort on the job when they believe that doing so will help them achieve the things they want Components of motivation: Expectancy: The belief that one’s effort will affect performance Instrumentality: The belief that one’s performance will be rewarded Valence: The perceived value of the expected rewards

Expectancy Theory : 

9 Expectancy Theory

Expectancy Theory and Mood : 

10 Expectancy Theory and Mood

Goal-Setting Theory : 

11 Goal-Setting Theory Goal serves as a motivator because it causes people to compare their present capacity to perform with that required to succeed at the goal Related Concepts: Goal Setting: The process of setting goals in a manner that motivates workers to raise their performance Self-Efficacy: One’s belief about being able to perform the task in question Goal Commitment: The extent to which people invest themselves in meeting a goal, their determination to reach a goal

Setting Effective Goals : 

12 Setting Effective Goals Assign specific goals: People perform at higher levels when asked to meet a specific high-performance goal than when simply asked to “do their best,” or when no goal at all is assigned Assign difficult but acceptable goals Provide feedback concerning goal attainment

Job Design : 

13 Job Design Job design is the process of creating jobs that people desire to perform because they are so inherently appealing Job enlargement is the practice of giving employees more tasks to perform at the same level of responsibility and skill Job enrichment is the practice of giving employees more tasks to perform that require higher levels of responsibility and skill The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) identifies how jobs can be designed to help people feel that they are doing meaningful and valuable work

Job Characteristics ModelCore Job Dimensions : 

14 Job Characteristics ModelCore Job Dimensions Skill variety is the extent to which a job requires using different skills and talents Task identity is the degree to which a job requires doing a whole task from beginning to end Task significance is the amount of impact a job is believed to have on others Autonomy is the extent to which employees have the freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and carry out their jobs as desired Feedback is the extent to which the job allows people to have information about the effectiveness of their performance

Job Characteristics ModelOther Components : 

15 Job Characteristics ModelOther Components Experienced meaningfulness of the work: the extent to which a job is considered to be highly important, valuable, and worthwhile Experienced responsibility: the extent to which employees feel as if they have control over their work efforts Knowledge of results: the extent to which employees understand how effectively they have performed Growth need strength: an individual’s need for personal growth and development

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