JOJO VITO, 2010 HBO CHAPTER 2

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Individual Processes: Personality, Emotions, Perception, and Learning Compiled: Jojo Vito, PhD

Individual Processes : 

2 Individual Processes Psychological processes that occur within individuals that cannot be seen but whose existence can be inferred on the basis of people’s behavior

Slide 3: 

3 Personality can be defined as the unique and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals

Sources of Personality Differences : 

4 Sources of Personality Differences 1. Heredity: Research on the nature-nurture controversy* indicates that about 50% of the variance in personality is inherited, thus setting limits on development 2. Environment: Shapes at least 50% of personality? Culture Family Group Membership Life Experiences

Personality Structure:The “Big Five” Personality Factors(ASCAI)(Each factor is a continuum of many related traits) : 

5 Personality Structure:The “Big Five” Personality Factors(ASCAI)(Each factor is a continuum of many related traits) Agreeableness Adjustment (Stable, confident, effective) (Nervous, self-doubting, moody) Sociability (Gregarious , energetic, self-dramatizing) (Shy, unassertive, withdrawn) Conscientiousness (Planful, neat, dependable) (Impulsive, careless, irresponsible) (Warm, tactful, considerate) (Independent, cold, rude) Intellectual Openness (Imaginative, curious, original) (Dull, unimaginative, literal-minded)

Personality Types:Type A vs. Type B : 

6 Personality Types:Type A vs. Type B Type A Behavior Pattern: A pattern of behavior involving high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and irritability. Type B Behavior Pattern: A pattern of behavior characterized by a casual, laid-back style; the opposite of the Type A behavior pattern.

Emotions : 

7 Emotions Emotions - overt reactions that express feelings about events Emotional intelligence - a cluster of skills related to the emotional aspects of life, such as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ emotions, to discriminate among emotions, and to use such information to direct one’s thoughts and actions

Learning : 

8 Learning Learning - a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience Operant conditioning describes the process of learning that results when the consequences of our behaviors determine whether we will be likely to repeat them in the future When our behaviors produce pleasant consequences, we are likely to repeat them When our behaviors produce unpleasant consequences, we are not likely to repeat them Observational learning occurs when someone acquires new knowledge vicariously -- that is, by observing what happens to others

Operant Conditioning Concepts : 

9 Operant Conditioning Concepts Positive Reinforcement: The process by which people learn to perform behaviors that lead to the presentation of desired outcomes Negative Reinforcement: The process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events Punishment: The process of decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with undesirable consequences Extinction: The process through which responses that are no longer reinforced tend to gradually diminish in strength

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